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if you have a problem that can be solved by a computer— we have a systems solution, 

# Two central processors with maximum RAM capacities of 56K and 384 K bytes 

# Three types of disk drives with capacities of 175K, 1.2M and IBM bytes 

# Two dot matrix printers with 80 and 132 line capacity 

A Selectric typewriter interface and a daisy wheel printer 

Match these to your exact need, add one or more of our intelligent terminals and put together 
a system from one source with guaranteed compatibility in both software and hardware. 

Southwest Technical Products systems give you unmatched power, speed and versatility. They 
are packaged in custom designed woodgrain finished cabinets. Factory service and support on 
the entire system and local service is available in many cities. 




SOUTHWEST TECHNICAL PRODUCTS CORPORATION 

219 W. RHAPSODY 

SAN ANTONIO, TEXAS 78216 (512) 344-0241 



Multi-User 



UniFLEX is the first full capability mufti-user 

operating system available for microprocessors. 
Designed for tlie 6809 and 68000, it offers its 
users a very friendly computing environment. 
After a user logs-in 1 with his user name and 
password, any of the system programs may be 
run at will. One user may run the text editor 
while another runs BASIC and still another runs 
the C compiler Bach user operates in his own 
system environment, unaware of other user 
activity The total number of users is only 
restricted by the resources and efficiency of the 
hardware in use. 



The design of UniFLEX, with its hierarchical file 
system and device independent I/O, allows the 
creation of a variety of complex support 
programs. There is currently a wide variety of 
software available and under development. 
Included in this list is a Text Processing System 
for word processing functions. 8ASIC interpreter 
and precompiler for general programming and 
educational use, native C and Pascal 
compilers for more advanced programming, 
sort/merge for business applications, and a 
variety ofdebug packages. The standard 
system includes a text editor, assembler, and 
about forty utility programs. UniFLEX tor 6809 is 
sold with a single CPU license and one years 
maintenance for $450.00, Additional yearly 
maintenance is available for $100.00. OEM 
licenses are also available. 



FLEX 



Multi-Tasking 



UniFLEX is a true multi-tasking operating system. 
Not only may several users run diffeienT 
programs, but one user may run several 
programs at a time. For example, a 
compilation of one file could be initiated while 
simultaneously making changes to another file 
using the text editor. New tasks are generated 
in the system by the "forte" operation. Tasks may 
be run in the background or locked - in main 
memory to assist critical response times. Inter- 
task communication is also supported through 
the 'pipe' mechanism. 



UniFLEX is offered for the advanced 
microprocessor systems. FLEX, the industry 
standard tor 6800 and 6809 systems, is offered 
for smaller, single user systems A full line of FLEX 
support software and OEM licenses are also 
available, 



Bo* 2570. West Lafayette. IN 47906 
|317) 463-2502 Tplex 276143 

"UniFLEX and FLEX are trademarks of Technical 
Systems Consultants, Inc, 



t 



68 



Portions of text prepared using the following. 

SWTPC 660O-68O9-OMAF2-C0S1-CT62-Spr1nt 3 

Southwest Technical Products 

219 W. Rhapsody 

San Antonio, Texas 78216 

EDITOR - WORO FTOCESSOR 
Technical Systems Consultants, Inc. 
Box 2573, W. Lafayette, IN 47906 
FLEX Is TM of TSC 

GIMIX Super Mainframe-Assorted mei»K>ry boards 

GIMIX Inc. 

1337 West 37th Place 

Chicago, II 60609 



Publisher: Don Williams Sr. 

Executive Editor: Larry Williams 

Subscriptions and Office manager 
Mary Robertson 



9 MICRO 



General Girl 'Friday' 
Joyce WIN lams 



Contributing Editors: 

Dr. Jack Bryant 

Dr. Chuck Adams 

Dr. Theo Elbert 

Dr, Jeffery 8rownsteln 

Dale Puckett 

Mussel I Gore 

Ron Anderson 

John iordon 

• CONTENTS * 



FLEX USER NOTES 10 Anderson 

A BATTERY B/U BOARD 12 Review 

UCSD PASCAL" 13 Puckett 

BUSINESS PROGRAMMING T7 Cagle 

STYLOGRAf* W/P SYSTEM 19 Pomerant* 

POSITION IMPENDENT O0OE.21 Boyd 

MORSRX (Morse code Rev.). .24 Mayhugh W4MSR 

HARDWARE HIOCUP - MP-A2...30 Gass 

0MAF-1/DMAF-2 ON 6600 31 Gass 

SOFTWARE MODS TO SWTBUG"..32 Hall 

BIT BUCKET 34 All of us 

INTERFACING THE BITPA0....3S Taaffe 



JOURNN. 



Send All Correspondence To; 

'68' Micro Journal 

3018Hamill Rd. 

PO Box 849 

Hixson, Tennessee 37343 

— Phone — 
Office 615*870-1993 
Plant: 615-892-7544 
Copyright C 1980 

'68* Micro Journal is published 1 2 times a year by '68' 
Micro Journal, 6131 Always Blvd., Chattanooga, TN 
37421. Second Class postage paid at Chattanooga. TN. 
Postmaster: Send Form 3579 to '68* Micro Journal, PO 
Box 849, Hixson, TN 37343. 



1-Year $18.50 2-Year $32.50 3-Year $48.50 



-ITEMS SUBMITTED FOR PUBLICATION - 
(Letters to the Editor for Publication) All letters to the 
Editor' should be substantiated by facts. Opinions should 
be indicated as such. All letters must be signed. We are 
interested in receiving letters that will benefit or alert our 
readers. Praise as well as gripes is always good subject 
matter. Your name may be withheld upon request. If you 
have had a go"»d experience with a 6800 vendor please 
put it in a letter. If the experience was bad put that in a 
letter also. Remember, if you tell us who they are then it is 
only fair that your name not' be withheld. This means that 
all letters published, of a critical nature, cannot have a 
name withheld. We will attempt to publish verbatim' 
letters that are composed using good taste.' We reserve 
the right to define (for 68* Micro) what constitutes good 
taste 

(Articles and items submitted for publication) Please, 
always include your full name, address, and telephone 
number. Date and number all sheets. TYPE them if you 
can, poorly handwritten copy is sometimes the difference 
between go. no-go. All items should be on 8X11 inch, 
white paper Most all art work will be reproduced photo- 
graphically, this includes all listings, diagrams and other 
non-text material. All typewritten copy should be done 
with a NEW RIBBON All hand drawn art should be black 
on white paper. Please no hand written code items over 
50 bytes. Neatly typed copy will be directly reproduced. 
Column width should be 3V« inches. 

(Advertising) Any Classified: Maximum 20 words. All 
single letters and/or numbers will be considered one (1) 
word. No Commercial or Business Type Classified 
advertising-. Classified ads will be published in our 
standard format. Classified ads $7.50 one time run, paid 
in advance. 

Commercial and/or Business advertisers please write 
or phone for current rate sheet and publication lag time. 

J68 H Micro Journaf 




WHAT'S COOKING 

on the FIFTY BUS 



32K STATIC RAM BOARDS 

Designed for use with: 
• Existing SS50 Systems * SS50C Extended Address Systems 

• Assembled 



THE CLASSY CHASSIS Jg 




• Burned In 

• Tested 




$898.19 



16K. 
24K. 
32K. 



.$328.12 
$438.14 
$548.15 



16K and 24K Versions are 
socketed tor 32K and require 
only additional 2114s for 
expansion. 



• Wriie prolect either ol two 16K sections 
•Low power consumption - uses 2114L low 

power HAMS 

• fully Socketed 

• Gold Bus Connectors 

• Guaranteed 2MHz operallon 



FEATURES: 

• Decoding lor 4 Extended Address Lines (allows 
memory decoding up lo 1 megabyte) 

• DIP-swIlcri to set extended addressing or disabte II 

• 4 separate BK Clocks, addressable lo any BK 
boundary by DIP -switch 

• Each 6K block may be Individually disabled 

AND N0W...GIMIX OFFERS YOU A 
Choice of 6800 or 6809 CPU CARDS 

You can order your system lo fit your needs or select one of the below featured systems. 
Please contact the factory for further Information and availability. 

Add as much memory as you need using G1M1X Static RAM Cards for the utmost in reliability, 

32K 6800 SYSTEM $1 ,694.59 

includes Chassis. 6800 CPU, 32K RAM BOARD, i/0 card 

32K 6809 SYSTEM $1 ,844.69 

includes Chassis, 6609 CPU, 32K RAM BOARD, I/O card 

32K 6809 PLUS SYSTEM $1,994.79 

Includes Chassis. 32KRAM BOARD. I/O Card, and fealures our 6809 PLUS CPU Card with the Time ot Day 
Clock option with oattefy back-up inslalled , as well as the 6840 Timer Package that provides 3 Independent 
16 bit counters 
This system also allows the following options to be added at additional cos) 

• Baltery back -up ot the 1K RAM by substituting CMOS parts 

• A 9511 or 9512 Arithmelic Processor 

• GiMiX or SWTP Dynamic Address Translators 



• 25 amp (SV) lerro- resonant conslanl voltage 
power supply, 

• Heavy welghl aluminum cabmet wilh 3 position 
key switch, fan, and provisions for two 5'* disk 
drives; 

• 6800/6609 Mother Board, fllteen 50 pin and 
aighi DlP-swilch addressable 30 pin slots (gold 
plated pins}, lully decoded. 

♦ Baud rale generalor on 1/0 section of 
Mother Board 

I/O BOARDS 
for the 30 PIN BUS: 

1 Pol Serial $ 88.41 
(RS 232 or 20MA, current loop) 

2 Pol AS 232 Serial 128.43 
2 Pol Parallel 88.42 

for the 50 PIN BUS: 

6 Port RS 232 Serial 288.40 

6 Port RS 232 Serial 318.46 

with on board Baud Rate generator 

8 Port Parallel 198.45 

BOTH 6809 SYSTEMS 

FEATURE OUR 

NEW TERMINAL BASED 

GMXBUG 09 SYSTEM MONITOR 

GMXBLIG 09 includes advanced debugging 

tools, utility, and memory manipulation 

routines. 

Bolh 6809 Systems: 

* Cart be raconlLgured to allow use ol olher 
system monitors (DS-9 and S8UG-E} 

• Include 1K ot Scratchpad RAM Of) the CPU 

* Allow optional software switching of system 
monitors. 

2MHz 6809's at slight additional cost when they 
become available 



EXPORT NOTES: 

For 50 Hz 230V C V TO W£R SUPPLY Add WO 00 

80 x 24 VIDEO BOARDS - Spacily Formal (No Added CturQft) 

On Or0*s under 1250 00 for * SJOgto eoad. of Clip* pl«»M Add WO 00 Kindling ane we *■ ship Am Men Prepaid 
On *\ otto vow* *t wtft snip via Erory A* FrttgM Codect and we «tii efurgi no terilinQ All orflen muit be 
piecuti id US funds Ptuji rials trw! lawgri ciwthn navi tj«n ut^ng taoM tigni weeks tor coMetton. m we 
wmiW idvist iminq rtwwy at thecal rjrjwn en i tank tccoutii inMUS Our bank i* ifc* CanliMflMi iihnon 
N4tbnJJ tank tf Chtiiuo Aeuxinl »/) 02033 Vim or Metier C*4r0* efse etMpled 



Phone, write, or see your dealer for details and 
prices on our broad range of Boards and 
Systems for the SS50/SS50C bus and our AC 
Power Control Products for all computers. 



FACTORY PRIME STATIC RAWS 

2114L 450 ns $5.90 300 ns $6.40 200 ns . . $6.90 

4044 450 ns $5.90 250 ns.. $6.90 

ADO SS 00 HANDLING ON OAOEftS WOL* S?O0 OO 



<& 



Gimix 



The Compenr that delivers 

Quality Electronic products since 1975. 

1337 WEST 37th PLACE, CHICAGO, IL 60609 
(312) 927-5510 • TWX 910-221-4055 



QIMIX" and QHOST* are Registered Tredemerks ot GIMIX INC. 

SEE GHOST AD PAGES 44, 47, 52, 56 



OS-9'" LEVEL TWO MULTIUSER 
OPERATING SYSTEM 






rue multitasking, multiuser OS for 
timesharing or real-time control 
applications. 

■ Sophisticated memory 
management permits use 
of over one megabyte. 

■ Versatile, easy-to-use input/output 
supports multiple devices. 

■ UNIX '" -like file structure including 
hierarchical directories, pipes, filters, 
and byte-addressable random access files. 

■ Provides log-on password protection 
and user file security. 

■ Can run on small, inexpensive 
systems with floppy disks and as little as 
32 K memory. 

□ $495.00* 



INTRODUCING 



6809 



SOFTWARE 
POWER 
TOOLS 



and edited. 

■ Buffer, line and character oriented 
commands. 

■ Search, change and extend operations. 

■ Permits multiple input/output files. 
D Disk or tape $75.40 
DKOM set 12716) $90.00 



OS-9' M 
INTERACTIVE ASSEMBLER 



OS-9'" LEVEL ONE 
OPERATING SYSTEM 

Single-user, single-memory map 
compatible subset of Level 'Iwo 
for software development or 
stand-alone control applications. 

■ Versatile input/output system can 
support multiple devices using 
intenupt-driven. DMA. or program- 
controlled data transfer. Users can easily 
add additional I/O devices. 

■ Tape or disk-based versions available. 

■ Disk versions support UNIX'** -like 
hierarchical directory structure and 
byte-addressable random-access files. 

■ Memory management for single 
address-space (up to 64 K). 

D Disk version $150.00* 
□ Tape version $95.00 



BASIC®" 
PROGRAMMING 
MNCUACE SYSTEM 

Extended BASIC language 
compiler/interpreter with 
integrated text editor and debug 
package. Runs standard BASIC programs 
or minimally-modified PASCAL programs. 

■ Permits multiple named program 
modules having local variables and 
identifiers. Modules are reentrant, 
position independent and ROMable. 

■ Additional control statements for 
structured programming: IF . . . THEN 
. . . ELSE, FOR . . . NEXT, REPEAT . . . 
UNTIL, WHILE ... DO. LOOP . , . 



BY matOWARE 



ENDLOOP. EXITIF . . . ENDEX1T- 

■ Allows user-defined data types and 
complex data structures. Five built-in 
data types: byte, integer, 9 digit 
floating-point, string and boolean. 

■ Extremely fast program execution. 

■ Available on ROM. disk or cassette 
tape. Runs under OS-9'" Level One or 
Level l\vo. 

□ Disk or tape $195.00* 



s 



MICROSOFT 
6809 BASIC 



tandard Microsoft BASIC optimized 
for the 6809 and 0S-9 ,M . 

■ Four data types: integer, string, 
single precision and double precision 
floating point. 

■ Program trace and edit capabilities. 

■ Automatic line numbering and 
renumbering. 

■ Supports random and sequential 
file I/O. Full PRINT US1NC for 
formatted output. 

□ Disk or tape $250.00 



M: 



OS-9" TEXT 
EDITOR 



inimum-keystroke macro text 
editor useful for text 
preparation or interactive 

word processing. 

■ User-defined macros with 

parameters permit virtually 

unlimited command expansion. 

Macros can be saved, loaded 



Compact Motorola compatible 
assembler for machine language 
program development. 

■ Operates in "batch 1 * mode or 
interactive line-by-line mode. 

■ Facilities for generation of OS-9" 
memory modules and system calls. 

■ Formatted listings include syntax and 
context eiror checking. 

■ Runs on OS-9" Level One or 
Level 'INvo. 

D Disk or tape $75.00 
□ ROM set (2716) $90.00 



F 



OS-9" 
INTERACTIVE 
DEBUGGER 




acilitates testing and debugging of 
machine- language programs. 

■ Includes common "monitor" 
functions: memory examine/change, 
breakpoints, display/change registers, 
hexadecimal arithmetic, etc. 

■ Access to system command 
interpreter. 

■ Available on KOM, disk or 
cassette tape. 

□ Disk or tape $35.00 
D ROM (2716) $50.00 

BASIC 09 is a trademark of Motorola. OS-9 is a 
trademark of Motorola and Mkroware*. UNIX is a 
trademark of Bell Telephone Laboratories. 

Most software is available on ROM, 
diskette and tape in versions for many 
popular 6809 computers. Source listings 
and yearly maintenance/update service 
are sold separately for most programs. 

•Specify manufacturer and type of CPU 
and I/O controllers. Contact Microware* 
for specific availability. 



» MICROWAR6 



Micrmvare fiyttems Corporation 
5835 Grand Avenue. Box 4865 
Oct Moines. Iowa 50304 
15151 279-8844 



T; 



A, BASIC COMMLKK 

'his BASIC compiler generates 
pure, fast, efficient 6800 machine 
language from easy to write BASIC 
source programs. Uses 
ultra fast integer math, 
extended string 
functions, boolean 
operators and real time 
operations. Output is KOMable and runs 
without any run -time fKickutje. bisk 
versions have disk Vo 5 tat erne nU and 
require 12K memory and host IHJS 
Cassette version runs in 8K and 
requires RT/68 operating system. 

□ Disk Extended Version 2. I 
SSH or l'l>;\* Diskette $150.00 

□ Cassette Version I.O. $65.00 



INNOVATION AND 
PERFORMANCE 



6800 



1 



RT/6H REAL TIMK 
OPERATING SYSTEM 



SOFTWARE 




POWER 



MIKBUC compatible KOM that combines 
an improved monitor debugger with a 
powerful multitasking real-lime operating 
system. Supports up to 16 
concurrent tasks at JS priority 
levels plus real time clock 
and interrupt control. 
Thousands in use smce 1976 handling all 
types of applications. Available on 6*130 
iMIKBUC-type) or 27nK (EPROM type) KOM. 
Manual is a classic on 6800 real time 
applications and contains a full source 
program listing. 

□ KWVMX (6KU»» $55,00 
Q KT68MXP \21\m $55.00 



BV MICROWARE 



K800CIIKSS 



A/BASIC SOI UCK 
CKNKKATCIK 



An "add-on" option for A HASH 
Compiler disk versions thai adds 
an extra Ihird pass which gener- 
ates a full assembly-language outpul 
listing and assembly language source file 
Uses original BASIC names and inserts 
BASIC source lines as comments, 
n SSII or RLK.V Diskette $75.00 



A/liASIC INTKKI'KKTKK 

Here il is - a super -fast A HASH' 
compiler! Now you can inter- 
actively edit, execute and debug 
/V BASIC programs wilh Ihe ease ol an in- 
terpreter - Ihen compile to super efficient 
machine language. Also a superb stand- 
alone applications and control oriented 
interpreter. Requires SK HAM. The cassette 



version is perfect tor Motorola 1)2 kils. 
G Cassette. SfcH or I! |;N* Diskette $95.00 



LISP INTKKI'KKTKK 

The programming Language LISP 
offers exciting new jwssibi lilies for 
microcomputer applications. A 
highly interactive interpreter lliat uses 
list-type data structures which are simul- 
taneously data and executable instructions 
LISP features an unusual structured, 
recursive function oriented syntax. Widely 
used for processing, artificial intelligence, 
education, simulation symbolic, and 
computer-aided design. «>Mi) LISI' requires 
a minimum of 12K KAM 
D Cassette. SSB or KI.KX* 
Diskette $75,00 

•FLEX is ,1 trademark Mi r.\iuiK k ii Systems 
Careuttkntt 



A challenging chess program for 
the 68(10. Two selectable difficulty 
lewis. Displays formal led cliess 
boared on standard terminals. Requires 
8K memory. Machine language with 
AH ASIC source listing. 

Q Cassette. SSli or I LEX* Diskette $50.00 

Our software is available for most 6800 
systems on cassette or diskette unless 
otherwise noted. I'hone orders welcomed, 
We accept MASTKUCIIAKCI' and VISA. 
We try to ship orders within 24 hours of 
receipt. Please call or write il you require 
additional information or our free 
catalog. Microware* software is available 
for OEM and custom applications. 



mm microwarg 



Mkim^iu Sy*trm> I medium 

I'.O, Hu\ iK63, Ik* M vs. I A ruaiM 

(51 5 1 21$ -Klt-H 




MICROSOFT DISK EXTENDED BASIC FOR OS-9 



Microsoft Basic is by far Ihe world's most popular Basic 
language — and a vast library of applications software 
written for it can be used on your system: business 
packages, scientific, engineering and educational program*, games 
etc. Tile OS 9 " version of Microsoft Basic is a full Implementation 
of Release 5.0 wilh the following features: 

■ Four variable types: Integer. Siring. Single Precision Floating 
Point (7 Digit), Double Precision Healing Point (hi Digit). 

■ Full I'ltlM USINC. tcir formatted output < includes asleri?>k fill, 
floating $. scientific notation, trailing sign, comma insertion). 

■ Trace Facilities for program debugging. 

■ Extensive program editing facilities via KIM command. ^ 

■ Matrices wilh up lo 255 dimensions. 

■ IKTIIKX-KLSK and WHILE WENI) for slructuied 
programming. 

■ Automatic Lme numbenng and renumht-v, 



■ Dynamic string space allocation 

■ Random and sequential file 10 with variable length records, 

■ Protected files can he saved in coded binary foiin.il. 

■ CHAIN and COMMON statements - programs may fv linked 
together and share common vanahles. 

This version of Microsoft Basic is not just a reassembled tiHJio 
Basic — il has been enhanced to Uke full advantage ol the WW 
and OSi> * superior capabilities. It is also a reliable Basic lhat you 
can count on for your important programs. 
D Microsoft Extended Basic Release 5 for CJS-BTI0BJ8 

P Also available: Standard Micros<ift 6800 or 6809 Basic 
Release 1.51 for Flex*. Many features of OS 9" version 
$250. (Ml 'lroikmark mI fctinfol SysUtlb lurculfonfe 



W^M MICROWARG 



&03 Grand Box 1*65 Dcs Mmncs. IA 5Utm • |5[5> 279 nkH 



In the world of 6800 Microcomputing 

there is only one Universal Mini-Disk System 






the PERCOM LFD-400 
with SOFTRAN * 



Made possible by SOFTRAN™, an inno- 
vative $24.95 translator program, the 
reliable Percom LFD-400™ has just 
been upgraded to the first universal 
minidisk storage system. 

Suddenly the two worlds of 6800 
minidiskette software become one. 
Because the LFD-400™ with SOF- 
TRAN™ can read either soft-sectored 
or hard-sectored disks. 



And owning an LFD-400/SOFTRAN 
system means you can run minidiskette 
programs from the enormous combined 
selection of all of the principal 6800 soft 
ware houses — TSC, Computerware. 
Software Works, Hemenway Associates and 
course Percom 

Available in versions for mini FLEX', FLEX 2.0 1 and 
Smoke Signal Broadcasting Company's DOS, 
SOFTRAN™ copies soft-sectored minidisk- 
ettes track-for-track onto hard-sectored mini- 
diskettes, If the source disk includes a FLEX f or 
'Smoke' DOS, SOFTRAN™ is used to modify the 
operating system to function with the Percom 
LFD-400™. 




only $599.95, complete with: (1 ) the drive, drive 
electronics and Percom's rugged PS-401 power 
supply all in a finished enclosure, (2) a demon- 
strably superior controller PC card featuring an 
explicit data/ clock separation circuit, MPX. a re- 
markable 2K DOS, and provision for 1K extra 
PROM, (3) an interconnecting cable and (4) a 70- 
page users manual, 



SOFTRAN™ is supplied on a minidiskette along 
with utilities for only $24.95. 
A users manual is included. 
You must indicate whether 
SOFTRAN™ is to be used 
for mini FLEX', FLEX 2.0* 
or Smoke's DOS. 

The Percom LFD-400™ 
mini-disk system sells for 




trademark of Percom Data Company, Inc. 



PEFSOM 



PERCOM DATA COMPANY INC 
SIT N KIRBY GARLAND TEXAS *6G«? 

Percom peripherals for personal computing* 



Also available: Upgrade kits for SWTPor 'Smoke* 
mini-disk drive systems. Kit includes LFD-400™ 
controller, MPX DOS & SOFTRAN™ Only 
$224,95, 

Available soon! 

SOFTRAN™ for Percom's 77-track LFD-800 n 
mini-disk system; SOFTRAN/9™ for 6809 FLEX* 
files and programs. 

trademark of Technical System* Consul lante. Inc. 

To place an order or request additional literature 
call toll-free 1-800-527-1592. For technical infor- 
mation call (214) 272-3421 . Orders may be paid by 
check, money order, COD or charged to a VISA or 
Master Charge account, Texas residents must add 
5% sales tax. 

PfltCES AND SPEC* CATIONS SUBJECT TQ CHAfcfC* WfNOuT NOTCE 



A Few Extraordinary Products for Your 6800/6809 Computer 

From Percom . . . 

Low Cost 
Mini-Disk Storage 
in the Size You Want 




Percom mini-disk systems start as 
low as $599 95. ready to plug in and 
run. You can't get better quality or a 
broader selection of disk software 
from any other microcomputer disk 
system manufacturer — at any price t 

Features 1 -, 2- and 3-drive systems 
in 40- and 77-track versions store 
102K- to 59lK-byles of random ac- 
cess data on-line ■ controllers in- 
clude exphcit clock/data separation 
circuit, motor inactivity time-out cir- 



cuit, buffered control lines and other 
mature design concepts ■ ROM 
DOS included with SS-50 bus ver- 
sion — optional OOSs for EXOR- 
cJser' bus ■ extra PROM sockets 
on-board - EXORciser* bus version 
has 1 K-byte RAM * supported by ex- 
tended disk operating systems; as- 
semblers and other program de- 
velopment/debugging aids; BASIC, 
FORTRAN, Pascal and SPL/M lan- 
guages, and. business application 
programs 



until i i 

•llll fill 



m 




EXORciser* Bus LFD-400EX 1 * -800EX 1 * Systems 




Versatile Mother Board, Full-Feature Prototyping Boards 



iiii mm* 1 1 1., 

nkii 1 1 it 



Ml 



- 






Printed wiring is easily soldered tin-lead 
plating Substrates are glass-epoxy Pro- 
totyping cards provide for power regula- 
tors and distribute capacitor bypassing . 
accommodate 14-, 16-, 24- and 40-pm 
DIP sockets. Prototyping boards Include 
bus connectors. other connectors and 
sockets are optional 

MOTHERBOARD— accofrwnodales five 
SS-50 bus cards, and may itself be 



plugged into an SS-50 bus Features 
wide-trace conductors. Price. $21.95 
SS-50 BUS CARD -- accommodates 34- 
and 50- pin ribbon connectors on lop 
edge, 10-pm Molex connector on side 
edge Price $24.95 

SS-30 BUS CARD — 1V«-fnch higher 
than SWrP I/O card, accommodates 34- 
pin ribbon connector and 12-pln Motex 
connector on top edge Price: $14 95 



The SBC/9'* A "10" By Any Measure. 

The Percom SBD9 1 * is an SS-50 bus compatible, stand- 
alone Single-Board Computer Configured for the 6809 
microprocessor, the SBC/g 1 * also accommodates a 6302 
without any modification. You can have state-of-the-art 
capabil ty of the 09 Or put to work the enormous selection of 
6800-coded programs that run on the '02 

The SBGS* includes PSYMON ,v , an easily extended 1- 
Kbyte ROM OS, Other features include 

» Total compatibility wth fre SS-50 bus Requires no changes to Ihe 
motherboard memory or I/O 

• Serial port Includes b*1 : rate generator RS>?32*C compatible with 
optional submtniature D' connector installed 10-pin Mole* connec- 
tor provided 

• Etght-bu. non latched bidirectional parallel port 13 multi-address 
extension of system bus Spans a 30- address Held accommodates 
an exceptional variety ot penphef a) dewces Connector is optional 

• Include \-K yte of static RAM 

*■ Costs only $199 96 wllh PSYMQN™ and comprehensive users 
anual that Includes source listing ol PSYMQN' v 



*u tradorvMk <* Pemw* Dalft Company, ine 
* Irademaik ol rl w MrmoU Co* porauon 

» subject to cha^p t^ntyas nocfca 



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SOFTWARE... 
FT1SI has mDREi 

WE INVITE YOU TO LOOK AT OUR NEW SOFTWARE CATALOG 
WHICH OFFERS NEW PROGRAMS FOR YOUR 6800 SYSTEM. 

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•TRS-80/MICROSOFT BASIC - MSI BASIC Translatorallows MSI users to run 
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TWX 910 749 6403 (MSI OLAT) Telex 42525 (MSI A OLAT) 




66" Micro Journal 



FLEX* USER MOTES 

BY: RONALD W. ANDERSON 

3540 STRUBRIDGE COURT 
ANN ARBOR, Ml 48105 

A DUMB ERROR 

Here's a story about yours truly and his 
stupidity. As I have mentioned. I bought a SWTPC 
6609 processor board for myself* I recently bought 
a second for the company, where I have a system 
nearly Identical to my ho system. Recently we 
ordered TSC DEBUG for the '09, and It simply 
wouldn't run. Between the company and my personal 
system, we have duplicates of everything, and it 
wouldn't run on my system either. T found one 
combination of 6809 processor, board, and system In 
which debug would run properly, and In addition I 
found that other combinations would run for a few 
minutes. Armed with the fact that I had a "heat 
problem" and a can of circuit cooler, I proceeded to 
find that ff I would cool a particular area of the 
processor board, debug would again run for a few 
minutes. I noted that It seemed to die a slow 
death, the output In the STEP mode slowing down and 
finally stopping. 

After a half dozen false starts and positive 
Identifications of the problem, I got a good dual 
trace scope from a friend and started to poke 
around. I have a friend, Paul Petrlck w?o has lust 
put together a system and has the '09 running. 
DEBUG ran fine on his system* To make a very long 
week of 2 *M's short, since I bought an assembled 
board, I didn't read the fine print on the Addendum 
sheet, and see the note that use of the processor 
board with an ^-Q or MP-82 board. It Is necessary 
to add a pull-up resistor to the FIhQ line* which fs 
the old UD2 line on the SS-50 bus. I noted action 
on the bus status output of the processor, and then 
that the FIR0 line was low (It is active tow). One 
pull-up resistor, and the problem went awoY 
permanently on both systems. Apparently, DEBUG 
clears the Interrupt mask and the Interrupt was 
seen, causing the program to 90 west. While the 
processor was cold, the open Interrupt Input was In 
the OFF state, and the system worked until It warmed 
up. One combination of processor, b rd. and system 
worked though perhaps marginal!/ wltn that input 
open. Possibly the mother board had some leakage to 
tne supply voltage on that Mne and held the input 
high. 

Before this discovery, I was ready to start 
writing nasty letters to SWTPC about their marginal 
design, and to go order someone else's '09 board for 
my system, I restrained myself from doing so until 
the problem was found and solved. As someone once 
said. If all else falls, read the Instructions. I 
had noticed that once In a while, a program would qo 
west. I assume that this will not happen with trie 

?roblem solved. SWTPC, I take back all the nasty 
hlngs I was thinking about you. I have never had 
any trouble that has been traced to a marginal 
design of anything from SWTPC. At our company, we 
also have an 8080 system that Is now being used In a 
word processing application, running ""Wordstar". 
The hardware in that system seems to fall once a 
month. I have brought about a few failures of my 
system by a slip of the probe, etc.. but the 
"random" failures, le. those That "lust happened", 
have been limited to a few Initial ly bad memory 
chips (marginal), the main rectifier bridge (one 
diode shorted) and a couple of problems with the 
SA-400 drives. One drive motor quit, and one 
plastic photo transistor holder broke (fixed with 
super glue In 5 minutes). I consider this to be 
very nigh reliability for nearly three years of 
heavy use. 

Z-80 MOT SO FAST AFTER ALL 

I may be forced to do a significant programming 
project In Z-80 (ugh) Assembler, due to a customer's 
requirements. That has led me to look at the Z-80 
Instruction set In a more serious manner than I had 
previously done. One of the "great" features of the 
Z-80 Is the highly publicized Block Move 
Instruction. Actually there are four such 
Instructions, but let's just tal k about the LDIR 
Instruction. This Is presented using Zllog 
Mnemonics. Apparently one has the choice of using 
the ••old" 8080 mnemonics for all the 8080 
Instructions, and the ZMog for the Z-80 only 
Instructions, or qolnq all the way and uslna all 

10 



Zllog mnemonics.' ~As I understand the" LDIR 
Instruction, the HL register Is loaded with the 
"FROM" address, the DE register with the »T0 M 
address, and the BC register with the byte count for 
the move. Assuming that the values FROM, TO, and 
KBYTES have been assigned a value previously, the 
code for a block move would look like this. 

UD HL,FR0M 

LD E£,T0 

10 BC, NBYTES 

LOIR 

These four Instructions set up the move, and the 
LDIR Instruction moves a byte, decrements B and 
repeats until B Is zero. The LD HL extended 
Instruction takes 10 machine states or clock cycles. 
LD DE and LD BC, the same, and the LDIR 16 cycles 
except on the fast loop pass (where It Is exited), 
whlcn takes 21 cycles. That totals 133 clock cycles 
for a 6 byte move, and the code Is II bytes* Since 
I don't have a system running, I don't guarantee 
absolute accuracy In this analysis, but It Ts close. 

Now, let's look at the 6809 equivalent. The 
setting up of the registers Is the same, and If we 
use a subroutine for the move, It only has to appear 
once In the program, and will not significantly 
Increase the size of the program. 

LDU IFR0M 
LDX #T0 
L0Y MBYTES 
LBSR MOVE 

MOVE L0A ,U+ 
STA ,X+ 
LEAY -1.Y 
BNE MOVE 
RTS 

The program contains the same four line call as In 
the Z-80. Since LDY requires four bytes, and we use 
a LBSR which Is a byte more than the LDIR 
Instruction, It costs us 13 bytes rather than the 11 
bytes In Z-80. The sub outlne Is 9 bytes long. 
According to TSC's Debug States Counter, this 
program moves 6 bytes Tn a total of 144 clock 
cycles. Our 6809 , s running at 2 MHZ execute this 
code as fast as a Z-80 running at 2 MHZ. We have 
some flexibility with the 6809 that Is lost In the 
Z-80 Implementation, If the block to be moved Is 
shorter than 256 bytes we may use the B accumulator 
as a counter and reduce the code a little. If this 
Is done, the number of clock cycles used Is reduced 
to 122. Suppose MOVE were a subroutine In a Hath 
package, In which all variables were 5 bytes. We 
could Include an Instruction LOB 0$ In the 
subroutine, reducing the calling code further. We 
could also use a BSR rather Than LBSR for any call 
within the range of the BSR, thus further reducing 
byte count and Increasing speed. If MOVE were used 
a large number of tl s In a program, one could set 
up one of the SWI vectors to go to It and use a 
single byte call SWI3 from anywhere In the program. 
Furthermore, the 6809 code may eas I I y be posit Ion 
Independent. 

On the basis of this comparison, we 6809 users 
can only say that we can do as well as the Z-80 
given the same clock speed, A look at the Z-80 
TnstrucTlon set and clock cycles required does 
reveal one area where we are much better off, 
though. The Z-BO has an X and a Y Index Register* 
Most of the Indexed Instructions take ly clock 
cycles. Some take 231 Our 6809 does an Indexed 
Instruction In varying numbers of clock cycles 
depending on the option. The shortest Is a JMP 
Indexed which takes 3 cycles. The longest that I 
can figure out Is a LDYIn,Rl as In LDY[$1234,X1 
which takes ff cycles. Something like a LDA .X+ 
only takes 6 cycles. The Z-80 doesn't even offer 
the Indirect or the post Incre nt Instructions. 
Sml le, 

6809 NOTES 

A few months ago. I mentioned my 6809 floating 
point math package, which was In the debug phase, T 
nave most of It working now, and It has passed all 
pr 1 1 ml nary tests using the four functions. I have 
not had a chance to do thorough checking of the 
routines that convert the Input ASCII or packed 8CO 
numbers to floating point binary notation and the 
Inverse, nor am T satisfied that all the functions 
are fully operational at this point, I need to get 

'66' Micro Journal 



the package Into an application and have some 
numbers thrown at It for a while to give It a good 
test before 1 will publish ft as fully operational. 
1 was able to use the 8 by 8 bit multiply 
Instruction for a triple precision multiply that 
uses only about 400 clock cycles for the 
multiplication end the moving of data onto the stack 
and the result back off of the stack. This does not 
Include the above mentioned conversions of format. 
It does represent e time for a multiplication In e 
series of calculations on variables already in 
floating point format. This of course makes the 
Divide routine the "turtle" Instruction. Of course 
you may speed up a calculation by using multiplies 
rather then divides wherever possible. For example, 
rather than dividing by PI, you could take the 
reciprocal of PI once In the program end then 
multiply by this value (about 0*310). If 1 get a 
few letters from reeders express I g Interest In this 
package, we will publish It over a period of time* 

LUC I DATA INTERVIEWED 

I recently wrote Lucldata asking for some 
Information about tl» principals of the company, 
having had some extended correspondence with them 
concerning their Pascal compiler. 1 received a 
biographical sketch of them from which 1 have 
prepared this "Interview". The company consists of 
Three people* Nigel and Eileen Bennee, end David 
Glbby. David wrote the Pascal compiler, and Nigel 
the P-code Interpreter or Runtime package. The 
Bennee's are British and Dave Glbby Welsh* They 
have been In Hoi land for about 10 years, having gone 
there to work In "the Computer Division or an 
International Research Establishment." Nigel has a 
degree In Nuclear Physics, for which there Is not 
much demand In England, so he went Into computing. 
The background Includes knowledge of electronics, so 
that Nigel understands both hardware and software, 
oth men bought "minimal 6800 1 s" In 1978, end since 
they were both accustomed to working on large 
computers, didn't like working with BASIC at home. 
With the expenditure of much midnight oil, they 
developed version 1 on their small systems* Eileen 
indicates that she too has an education In Physics 
and worked In computing at the research center untlf 
their femlly reaulred her to stay home. Eileen 
started Lucldata with the Idea of doing programming 
work on a consulting basis, which she Indicates has 
been her main occupation* Someone suggested that 
they should market Pascal, end "thet Ts when we 
started working 20 hours a day J" Eileen goes on to 
Indicate that the response to their first version 
was very fevoreble, end thet was the reason that 
they went on end developed the second. They heve 
moved recently. Their new address Is: 

LUC 1 DATA 

Dulnsroosweg 10 

2597 KJ The Hague 

Netherlands 



I Inquired as to whether they would heve 
dealers here, and they Indicated the+ they want to 
maintain control over the production of the 
software. They Indicate that they feel that a lot of 
software for the Micro merket Is badly supported and 
that they are trying to do better. 

I have found further nice features of the 
Pascal. In my attempt to apply It to programs for 
balancing machines. One In particular Ts worth 
writing about here* The Pascal as supplied has the 
capability of supporting 8 output devices Including 
the terminal as two (one for Input, end one for 
output). This means that you can overlay the device 
tables with the addresses of your 1/0 routines for 
some special device, and then READ and WRITE to It 
just as though It were your printer or terminal* 1 
used this device table to Jump to en Input and 
output routine to do something that Is at first 
glance downright "sll ly". I wrote e routine to 
write to and reed from memory. There Is In addition 
a procedure thet allows you to poke a location that 
defines the area of memory to which you want to 
write* Why on earth would anyone went to do thet, 
as 1 always say I Simple, my system will have some 
battery backed up RAM CCM0S), and I want to save 
severe! sets of machine set-up parameters for 
various parts. Pascal, being stack oriented does 
not heve very well defined locations for variables, 
so this device lets me write to and read from fixed 
memory locations* Tlie data Is kept alive by the 
batteries, end next time the program Is run, the 
machine operator c n retrieve his machine sat-up by 

'68' Micro Journal 



an ID number (one of 32), end run a pert thet he ran 
lest week without going through e set-up procedure 
again* 1 could easily add a routine to allow 
writing to my Modem under program control while 
running pascal. If you haven't guessed, 1 em very 
pleased with the Pascal and the Company* (I have no 
financial Interest or other connection with 
Lucldata. ) 

POLYNOMIAL REGRESSION 

No, It's not a disease. If you have the book. 
Some Common Basic Programs by Borchers and Poole, 
you have probably paged pest their program of thaT 
name* It sounds deep and complicated, but It Is 
really not* I have used It In the past to find fast 
approximations for Scientific Functions. but 
recently managed to get It teamed up with TSC 
Extended BASIC. When you have 14 digit arithmetic 
available, this program can perform magic* What 
does It do? It generates an equeTlon that produces 
an approximation to a function that you Input to It* 
Suppose you have a group of data points that you 
want to describe with a mathematical function. This 
program, after you input the data points (X and Y 
coordinates of The points), will produce an equation 
or formula of the form A3X*3+A2X*2+A1X*A0* The A»s 
ere called the coefficients of the terms of the 
equation which Is called a polynomial. It contains 
descendlrKj "powers" of X. The power of the first or 
largest term Is called the order of the equetlon. 
In the Polynomial regression program, you specify 
the order of the equation and Input points on the 
curve to be approximated. 

Such approximations are used for the scientific 
functions m most of the math packages for 
computers. Just for fun, 1 let Extended BASIC 
compute the SINE of angles from to 1*6 radians In 
Increments of 0.1 radian, and entered these 
coordinates for a run of The Polynomial Regression 
program. 1 was surprised To find tnat a 7th order 
approximation produced an error thet was always lost 
In the 8th digit of the result. The worst" case 
error Is less Than 4x10©-8. This approxImaTlon 
Involves 7 multiplications and 8 additions, so It Is 
reesonebly fast. For the SINE and COSINE functions, 
the angle can be reduced to a value between zero and 
PI/2 (about 1.59 radians). 



The more straightforward way to calculate the 
SINE, Is as a sum of some of the terms of an 
Infinite series* The series for the sine Ts 
X-xe3/<3*2Hx05/<5*4*3*2)-xC7/<7*6*5*4*3*2) etc. 
Each term Is the previous term with the numerator 
multiplied by -(x*2) and the denominator multiplied 
by the next two Integers. Math students will be 
aware that 7*6*5*4*3*2*1 may be abbreviated 71 or 7 
factorial. Calculating the first 7 terms of this 



series requires 7 multiplications and additions and 
the error approaches 2Q% at the limit of 1.59 
radians. The "approximation" Is thus about a million 



times wore accurate than a short portion of the 
"correct" calculation for the value. This means, of 
course that many more terms of the Infinite series 
must be Included to cot the accuracy required to 
match the "approximation*. For your Interest, the 
Scientific Functions In PASCAL that were published 
In this column previously have been redone an Just 
those functions ere given here* TJkj coefficients 
are given to 9 digits since thet Is the limit of 
Lucldata PASCAL* The 9 digit coefficients produce 
results that have a worst case error of less than 4 
parts In the 8th digit* It was of some Interest to 
note that the error curve Is symmeTr 1 ca 1 , end ThaT 
The number of peaks or maxima In the error curve 
corresponds to the order of the approximation 
polynomial* It was of Interest to note that the 
values for the odd power coefficients of the 
approximation are near the values of the 
coefficients of the Infinite series* They are 
somewhat "distorted" and the even power coefficients 
ere very smell for the first few terms. The reason 
that wa can get such Improved accuracy Is that the 
Infinite series In theory works for all values of 
angle, but the approximation only works for angles 
between end 90 degrees* 

I also found a much better approximation for 
the Arctengent function than I had previously used* 
That these approximations get better end better as 
the Order of The approximation Is Increased Is 
logical* This fact was somewhet obscured when 1 ran 
the Regression proqrem with 6 or 9 dlolt BASIC. The 

_ 11 



program computes a "standard error of estimate", 
which reached a minimum and then Increased with the 
order of the approximation equation. With the more 

free I se arithmetic, I have saen no degredatlon of 
he error for equations of order as high as 10, 
though the approximations have been adequate with 
less terms. I find that the Arctangent requires an 
order 9 approximation to be about twice as bad as 
the order 7 approximation for the SINE. Also 
Included here are the listings for the 
approximations for LOG and EXP done In this way, 
having reduced their range first In a manner similar 
to that of reducing the angle for the Trigonometric 
functions. 

One more note regarding the Polynomial 
Regression program. In order 1o try various orders 
of polynomials for the approximation, ft Is 
necessary to run the program several times. I don't 
like typing In 12 digit values for the 17 points of 
Input data, so I changed the Input statement to a 
read statement, and included the values as DATA 
statements at the end of the program. Also, In 
order 1o try the approximations of higher order. It 
Is necessary to Increase the dimensions for son* of 
the array variables as explained In the program 
listing in Borchers and Poole. I latar got tired of 
typing In the data points even once, and modified 
the program to read a data file, and then wrote very 
short programs to generate the data points. It was 
Interesting to note that the TSC extended BASIC Is 
accurate enough to allow calculation of the error 
curve for errors In the 8th digit. TSC must be 
accurate to at least 12 digits for these functions. 
I don't have tables accurate to that many pieces to 
find out and tny calculator Is only good to 9 places. 

SO BASIC 

I finally broke down and bought the Software 
Dynamics BASIC compiler. As a result of the column 
for July "soapbox speech 11 that I mada regarding 
compilers In general frcm a user's point of view* T 
received a letter from Ron Whites of SO, Informing 
me of their version 1.4 that allows long variable 
names and labels. Wow they tell me 1 1 Anyway, there 
were Included a few programs that they had done to 
demonstrate the new compiler. Sorry Ron, but I 
think long labels can be way overdone. Thay produce 
almost as unreadable a program as do the varalble 
names A I through Z9 In Basic. Further, It really 
gets frustrating when you have to type a very long 
variable name or label more than a few times. 

In his sample program Ron used some of these 
for variable names: THEREEXISTSAWAYOUT, 
RANDOMDIRECTIONSAVE, and RANDOMLY NGTHSAVE. Maybe 
with lots of care and lots of white space around 
statements these work for you, but I would prefer 
abbreviated versions such as WAYOUT, RDIRECT10N, and 
RLENGTH. I really don't think the longer versions 
convey any more Information except perhaps on the 
first reading of the program. These variables are 
Incidentally frcm a program to generate a maze. It 
was modified by SO from the program by Paul Wennberg 
In Kilobaud Microcomputing, Nov. 1979. Version 1*4 
also has provision for passing parameters to 
subroutines and functions, whlcn make It look like 
Fortran or Pascal. 

Aside from these observations, SO BASIC Is 
fast, and I will soon have a series of Benchmark 
tests of most a I I of the compilers and Interpreters 
currently available for FLEX. These will compare 
not onl" run time but memory efficiency. My current 
Impression Is that the SO compiler uses about half 
egaln as much memory as Luc 1 data Pascal when 
running the equivalent program. SO does have full 
scientific functions Included In the runtime 
package, and Luc I data Pascal doas not. These 
estimates Include the Scientific Functions as I have 
prepared them to run with Pascal. There will be 
more here about tha subject when I have had a chance 
to do the comparisons accurately. 

Please excuse my previous reference to UCSD" 
Pascal as U5C0. It was not a typographical error, 
but a genuine mistake on my pert, T hadn't realized 
that the acronym stands for University of California 
at San 01 ego. 

Editor's Note: 

All references to the symbol ■©' should be 
chenged to ' f, '• This Is a fault of our daisy wheel 
In tn# 19 character configuration. 

12 



The routines Indicated above will be Included 
In next months Issue. Also some additional 
routines, furnished by Ron Anderson, and not 
published yet, will also be Included. 

As you can tell by this Issue, we have 
Increased the size of 68 Micro Journal. This will 
allow me to Include more listings and other 
material. This Is all due to the fine response our 
advertisers have received from YCXJ OUR READERS, 

Also will use this space to note that we are 
running 'sloooow' on the 'GIANT SOFTWARE CONTEST' 
wrap-up. We hope to have It finished soon, but when 
we gof to the final part of Judging the entries* we 
found that some of the disk, especially those from 
overseas were 'bombed'. We hope we have them all In 
by now and can get It completed soon. Thanks ago In 
to each and every one of you who entered. Needless 
to say It was a much bigger Job than we had thought. 



DMW 



A BATTERY BACKUP CLK BOARD 



For those users who have need of a battery 
backed up, clock for the S50 bus, the ROBERTSON 
ELECTRONICS CLK 68-1 clock- Interrupt board Is now 
available from Robertson Electronics, 1003 Warm 
Sands Drive SE, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123. 

The CLK 68-1 Is Installed on the 30 pin bus and 
obtains all voltages from this bus, both operation 
and battery charge. This meens that If all power Is 
lost the clock remains active. Not Just for a day 
or week or so, but for up to four (4) months. That 
should Just about survive all power failures! 

PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION 

The clock Is a combination calendar and clock 
board. Also available Is a Interrupt generator, with 
Intervals from 488 microseconds to 256 seconds. Ho 
Jumpers are required as dip switches are used for 
setting all features. The Nl-Cad batteries 
furnished are In a charging state when the computer 
Is running. This should Insure dependable battery 
back up under normal useage. Provision are for day 
of week, month, day of month and time (12/24 hour 
format) the year Is set In software. Gold pin 
connectors and 2 MHz operation are available as an 
option. Tlte board Is solder masked and silk 
screened, and also has available an extra parallel 
1/0 port. It comes with all parts Including the 
batteries and IC sockets. The advertised price Is 
589.95 kit and $119.95 assambled and tested. 

Also as options all software on SSB disk $14.95 
- cassette (Kansas City) $12.95. The 36 page manual 
can be ordered for $10.00 - refundable with order of 
CLK 68- 1, 

The control crystal has a trimmer for tight 

calibration. The board has no 'after-thought 1 

Jumpers and the board used for the review worked 
without a hitch. 

00CU ENTATI0N 

The manual Is well done. It consist of 36 
pages of assembely Instructions, applications notes 
and examples, checkout, calibration, theory of 
operation, software description, software listings 
and component Idendlf I cat I on charts. For an Item of 
this type the documentation Is above average, and 
the computer user with little construction 
experience, should not experience much dlfflcullty. 
The only part that might give trouble Is tight 
calibration of the crystal circuit. The standard 
accuracy of the crystal Is .0003 percent. For those 
without adequate lab equipment to do a close crystal 
alignment or those who desire the tightest ratio 

W Micro Journal 



possible, the factory will do a final alignment 
the modest sum of $5.95. 



for 



As stated ear 
together and Is laid 
easy and logical to 
The software list 
written assuming the 
system running OOS 
easy enough for the 
system or monitor I 
For those who heavlt 
given also. 



tier the manual Is well put 
out In such a manner that It Is 

follow, even for a beginner. 

ngs furnished In the manual are 

computer Is a Smoke Signal 

5.XXC or later. However, It Is 

user to convert to any other 

/0 running on a S50 bus machine. 

y use BASIC, sample routines are 



OPERATION 



Interfacing and addressing the board Is 
straight forward for both calendar/clock and 
parallel port. Access Is fast, on the order of a 
millisecond or so. A sample of the printout Is: 

FRI AUG 8 1980 (DATE) 
21:45:22 (TIME 24 m) 

7:55:12 A.M. (TIME 12 HR) 

We find that program listing that have the date and 
time printed on each one are easier to use, from the 
standpoint of knowing when each was written or 
modified. A system calendar and clock Is a 
worthwhile addition to any computer system. 

CONCLUSION 

As detailed earlier the Robertson 

calendar/clock board Is a product of excellent 

quality, both In design and construction. 

Additional Information may be secured from: 

Robertson Electronics 

1003 Warms Sands Or SE 

Albuquerque, NM 87123 

(505) 294-0025 



UCSD PASCAL" 

Dale Puckett 

14753 Ends ley 

Wood bridge, VA 22193 

This review deals with one of the most powerful 
and least understood software products available 1o 
6809 users. 

UCS0 PASCAL" for the 6809 Is sold by the 
Microsystems 1 vis Ion of Control Systems, Inc. 
(CSU, 1317 Central Ave., Kansas City, Kansas 66102. 
CSI >s tree telephone number Is 800-255-4411. 

UCS0 PASCAL* 1 Is supplied to SWTPC system owners 
on three disks In either the 8-Inch or 5 1/4 Inch 
format. The disks end a manual written by SofTech, 
Inc., sell for J419. The first disk contains the 
operating system, e compiler, a screen editor, a 
filer, e linker, and a library file. A 6809 unique 
Interpreter and Basic Input Output System (BIOS) 
round out the disk. 

Another disk Includes e BASIC compiler, a line 
oriented editor for use on teletypes and other hard 
copy terminals, a disassembler end a calculalor. 
The final disk contains Assemblers for both 6800 end 
6809 systems. 

Before pursuing the details of this very 

complex system we should tip our hat to Dave Allen 

at CSI. Dave goes out of his way to help his 
customers master UCS0 PASCAL*. 

W Micro Journal 



INTRODUCTION 

When you type »U" or "D" for the first time to 
bootstrap the system, you will find yourself In a 
new world. UCSD PASCAL m Is unlike anything 
available to 6800/6809 users before. Its forte Is 
Its transportabl I Ity and machine- Independence. The 
same system, except for the machine unique 
Interpreter and BIOS, has been Installed on the 
8080, Z-80, 6502, Tl 9900, 8086, NOVA, PDP-11, 
W0-U, Z-8000 and 68000 microprocessors. More than 
15,000 copies are In existence and users Iwve 
written software ranging from F0R1RAN compilers end 
text-processors to accounting and small business 
packages. The Idea here Is that you can run their 
programs on your 6809 system without the slraln of 
translating from one dialect to another, etc. 

This Iransportabl I Ity Is made possible by a 
Pseudo-Machine architecture. The compiler generates 
p-code which looks like machine code to the 
pseudo-machine. This p-code Is the same for all 
machines. The Inter peter translates It to machine 
code for the system In use. 

OPERATING SYSTEM 

The operating system Is on a file called 
SYSTEM.PASCAL and Is the first thing you see after 
booting. After a nice welcome message, a prompt line 
Is printed along the top of the screen. If your 
screen Is 80 characters wide, you see the entire 
word, for example, Fdler. If It Is smaller you 
will only see the first lelter of the command 
because terminals with shorter lines receive 
one- letter prompts. 

All comrands are one- letter. For example 1o 
run a program, you type R. To compile a program, 
you type C. 

Most of the disk work Is done by a program 
called the Filer. Its one-letter commands allow you 
to move files, remove them, and list their 
directories, etc. It also keeps track of the date 
and keeps a record of the names of your various 
peripherals end their files. 

COMMUNICATION 

Every peripheral on your system Is Identified 
by e number and a name. You may use either. For 
example If you want to print a file, you transfer It 
to the printer. When the f I ler prompts you with "To 
where?", you may answer "PRINTER:" or "#7:". The 
colon tells the system that the word Is e volume 
designator. 

SWTPC DMAF drives ©re assigned to volumes 4 and 
5. The MF-68 mini -floppy system appears as volumes 
9 and 10. If you had a three (three mini 5" disk 
are maximum) drive minidisk system It would appear 
as 9, 10 and 11. Volumn #12 Is used for the SWTPC 
COS-f Marksman Winchester hard-disk drive. 

The PRINTER mentioned earlier Is assumed to be 
a serial Interface on port 7. The drivers supplied 
In BIOS are dumb drivers and assume a standard ASCII 
terminal. To Interface parallel printers, etc*, you 
must write your own assembly language procedure end 
link It 1o the system using the Linker. 

The standard UCSD package places the console on 
port I and e remote Input and output on port 2. 
Port #0 Is also used as a remote port. 



GETTING IT RUNNING 

Disks used on the 6809 system must 
Initialized uslnq the TSC NEWDISK utility. 



be 
CSI 



_13 



plans to supply an fnltfal Izatlon utility written In 
PASCAL In the future, however. 

NCMORY 

You must have 56 K of memory In your system to 
run UCSD PASCALS The operating system checks to 
see that 56 K Is available and Mill return to 
S-BUG-E If It Is not. 

The packege conies ready to run on a SWTPC 
CT-82. If you have this terminal you have It made. 
If not, don't worry. CSI supplies two utilities, 
SETUP and BINDER, which allow you to describe your 
terminal to the PASCAL system. 

SETUP handles details such as the screen width, 
number of lines on the screen, backspace character, 
delete character, etc. , much like the TTYSET utllHy 
which comes with FLEX. SETUP Is completely 
self -prompting and Is a dream to use. You can 
answer the prompts with a decimal number, a 
hex I decimal number, an octal number, or you can type 
the actual character you are defining. It even 
confirms the change and prompts again, just In case 
you want to change your mind. When you are 
finished, you may update the parameters Tn memory or 
on a disk file. If you pick the disk option, SETUP 
creates a file called NEW.M ISC INFO which you later 
are Invited to convert to SYSTEM.MISCINFO. 

BINDER allows you to Insert your own GOTOXY 
routines Into the SYSTEM.PASCAL file. These 
routines tell terminals like the CT-82 where the 
cursor should be on the screen at all times. 

Believe It or not, I used the example GOTOXY 
routine for extremely dumb terminals In the system 
manual, and It made my ancient CT-1024 appear to be 
smart. Unbelievable. 

A CLOSER LOOK 

Immediately after booting you are offered a 
choice of a I I the commends at the outermost level. 
The prompt line looks like this. 

Command: ECdlt, RCun, Fdle, C(omp, LCInk, X(ecute, 
ACssem, 0(ebug, ? (11.0). Typing an F will load 
the editor Into memory and automatically load In the 
current workflfe. The workflle Is a concept central 
to the structure of UCSD PASCAL". It Is a 
scratch-pad area which can be used for the 
development of programs. Only one workflle Is 
allowed at a time although any workflle may be saved 
elsewhere with a different filename. 

The workflfes are ca I led SYSTEM. WRK. TEXT and 
SYSTEM. WRK.COOE. If you type C, the system compiler 
will be reed Into memory and the workflle will be 
compiled If It Is present. If It Is not present, 
the compiler will prompt for a filename. 

If It detects an error In the syntax of your 
program, the compiler wlJI stop and display an error 
number. It also points to the offending text. 

At this point you can type escape to abort and 
return to the command level, or you may type an E 
and go straight 1o the Editor. When you do this, 
you will find that the Editor will place the cursor 
near the mistake. If the error Is unimportant 
however, you may hit the spacebar and go on with the 
compl latlon. 

Typing an R will cause the current workflle 1o 
be executed. If the program has not been compl led 
yet, R will load In the compiler and compile It. It 
will also automatically call the linker If 
necessary. If the codeflle Is already existent 
however, It will execute It Immediately. 



Typing X will generate a prompt for a filename. 
If the filename you provide Is on line. It will be 
executed. If not, an error message Is generated. 

Fran this level you can also call In the 
Linker, Assembler, or Debugger. Typing an F In the 
outer level will call In the Filer which win 
Immediately print Its own prompt line. 

Filer: G(et, S(ave, WChet, N(ew, L(d1r, RCem, 
TCrans, 0(ate, and QCult (A). 

If you type a n ? n you will be shown more 
commands. The second group allows you to check for 
Bad blocks, Krunch the disk, Make a new disk. Set 
the name of the volume Prefix, or Zero a new disk. 

An overview of filer commands Is provided here. 
G, for Get, will load the named file ln1o the 
workflle. One filename here will load both the .text 
and .code flies If they are on line. 

An S will allow you to Save the file you have 
been working on. It prompts you for a filename. 

Typing N clears the workflle and creates a 

blank, unnamed workflle. If there Is a workflle 

already present you will be asked If you want to 
throw It away. 

A W will Identify the neme and present state of 
the workflle. A V will give you a list of the 
Volumes you have on-line. L will produce a List of 
a disk directory and the system will prompt you for 
the volume you wish to list. C will allow you to 
Change the name of a volume or a pertTcular file. R 
will remove a file from the directory and T wl 1 1 
allow you to copy one file to enother. It should be 
noted here that you can transfer a file to the 
CONSOLE: or PRINTER:. It took me a long time to 
figure out thet this was the easy way to list a 
file. At first I loaded the file ln1o the editor and 
listed It. 

will allow you to change the current Date, or 
check It and P will allow you to change the volume 
Prefix. 

X, for examine el lows you to physlcaly attempt 
to recover suspected bad blocks on a disk. K will 
Krunch a disk. This means that all files present 
are moved so that tha emply space left on the disk 
Is contiguous. 

One good point about the operating system Is 

thet system codeflles do not have to be on the 

system disk. The system scans all volumes that are 

on-line for the System files and remembers where 
they are. 

This Is extremely Important to persons using 
the 5 1/4 Inch disks. Especially, those with only 
35 tracks. 

The reason Is that PASCAL system files are very 
long. For example, SYSTEM. COMPILER Is 68 blocks 
long. The editor Is 45 blocks long. A block Is the 
equivalent of two FLEX sectors. In other words, It 
takes over half a disk for Just the compiler. 

Since the operating system scans, I am able to 
place the compiler, editor, linker and library all 
on one disk ready for use. I can then use the disk 
which wes booted In to hold quite large yorkflles. 
The only system files I Include on It are BIOS, the 
SYSTEM. INTERP and the SYSTEM.F ILER. 

T>€ EOITOR 

The SYSTEM. ED I TOR Is the principal tool for 
'68' Micro Journal 



erecting, reading, and changing text flies* When I 
first comas up It prints a prompt line on the top o 
the screen and begins printing the file on th< 
second fine. As much of the ffle that will fft I: 
placed on the screen* The rest can be called In a* 
will by moving the cursor. 

The prompt line almost explains Itself. 

Edit: A(djust C(py Ddete Fdnd Knsrt J(mp R(plao 
Q(ult X(chng and Z<ap* 

ff a workflle already exists. It 1 

automatically read fn when the editor Is called. I 

It Is not present you may name a file to be read, o 
you may hit return and start a new workflle. 

A summary of the various commands avaMabf 
with tlie editor follows. 

A, for Adjust, allows you to change th 
Indentation of the line which contains the cursor. 

C, for Copy, enables you to copy text fro 
another disk file Into your workflle. It als 
allows you to move selected portions of the curren 
workflle Into a special buffer for holding. 

D, for Delete, allows you to delete characters 
words or any comb I natron of the two. When you eel 
the function, the location of the cursor becomes th 
anchor. You then move the cursor at w I ( 1 ar 
characters between the two positions are remove 
when you type an ASCII ETX. 

F, for Find, al lows you to find a string In th 
workflle* It has two modes, Literal and Token. 1 
explain, a Literal search for /F-STOP/ would fir 
only that exact- character combination. A Tok« 
search on the other hand would also ffnd /F - STOF 
or /F- STOP/. It would even find the token If tl 
two parts were on different fines. 

I, for Insert, Inserts text starting at tl 
location of the cursor. It allows the use of tl 
backspace and delete characters to reject select* 
parts of the Insertion. 

J j for Jump, gives you a way to move the curs* 
from one part of the file to another. You can Jul 
to the Beginning or to the End of the file as we 
as to Markers you are allowed to establish. 

M, for Margin, will adjust anything locat* 
between two blank lines to the margins you set. 

P, for Page, will move the cursor one page at 
time* A Page here Is defined as the amount of te 
that can be lie Id by the screen. 

Q, for Quit, will let you leave the editor, 
the process you may. Update the workflle; Ex 
without changing the workflle; Write to a nam 
file; or Return to the editor. 

R, for Replace, lets you change one string 
another. It will operate In the Literal or Tok 
modes. And, will allow you to Verify the chan 
before It happens ff desired. 

S, for Set, gives you a chance to set Marke 
by assigning a name to them* It also allows you tc 
define the Environment. 

V, for Verify, will redisplay the screen wltr 
the cursor centered. 

X, for exchange, will exchange the current texl 
fn the file with the text typed. It only works If 
one line. A backspace will cause the original 
character 1o re-appear. 
'68' Ml cro .lournai 



Z, for Zap, remembers the location of the last 
thing found, replaced, or Inserted; and deletes 
everything between there and the current cursor 
position. 

The SYSTEM. EDITOR supplied with the UCSD 
PASCAL* package from CSf allows you to work only 
with files that will fit In available memory. This 
appears to be Just over 14,000 characters and could 
be a disadvantage If you are working with extremely 
long source files. I understand, however, that UCSD 
fs working on another editor called the L2 Editor 
which can edit files as large as ttie space available 
on the disk. Mm sure CSI will make It avafalble 
when the UCSD folks, perfect It. 

As we mentioned earlier the CSI package also 
Includes an editor called YALOE for Yet Another 
Line Oriented Editor. I tried ft and didn't like 
It. But, it does allow you to use the UCSD system 
with a hard terminal such as a teletype. 

The SYSTEM. COMPILER Is an adaptation of the 
portable Pascal -P compiler developed at the Swiss 
Technical University. It has been changed to run on 
microcomputers with restricted meioory capacity and 
to handle UCSD extensions. 

The compiler makes one pass through the source 
file thus allowing It to run relatively quickly. 
The cost Is a relatively large amount of memory 
space. However, the 56K SWTPC system can handle 
quite large Pascal programs. 

If you do have extremely large source flies, 
this package has the answer. It allows you to 
operate the compiler as II It wera two separate 
programs. Only one part Is brought Into memory at a 
time. This expands the compilers working memory by 
over 5 K but It does slow the process down a bit. 

Another feature of the compl ler which should be 
mentioned here Is the Include directive. This 
feature allows you to keep small parts of a Pascal 
program on separately edited text files. 

This comes In handy when you want to use one 
section of program statements In several different 
programs. The Include directive tells the compiler 
to regard the entire text contained In a named text 
file as If It were part of the source program text. 
It looks like this. 
C*$l EXAMPLE. TEXT*) 

This statment would cause the text file 
EXAMPLE. TEXT to be read In and compiled as If It 
were part of the source file being compiled. You 
can even Insert an Include file which contains 
CONST, 1YPE, VAR, PROCEDURE and FUNCTION 
declarations. To do this you must use the Include 
directive between the last variable declared In trie 
VAR list and the first PR0CE0URE or FUNCTION heading 
declared In the main program. This placement tells 
the compiler 1o relax the strict Pascal syntax 
requirement that 00NST declarations occur before 
TYPE declarations. 

DISK FILES 

Another Important area that should be covered 

In this review Is the use of disk files. UCSD 

PASCAL" has been extended to allow the handling of 
random access disk files. 

The UCSD system regards all disk files as If 
they were composed of blocks 512 bytes long. This 
Is made possible because of the low level routines 
In the 8 1 OS package. This allows the physical 
characteristics of the users particular disk system 
to remain transparent. These details are of no 
concern to most programmer** 1S 



Packing of the records Into the correct number 
of 512-byte blocks Is done automat f cal 1y by the 
Pascal operating system. This means tl» progremmer 
need only request access to a specific logical 
record In his file by using Its number. 



A type definition for a 
fl le might look like this. 



typical Pascaf date 



TYPE INFOREO(PERSON); 
TMSRiO 
RECORD 
NAME: STRING 1 32 I; 
AD0RESS:STFHMGt20l; 
TOWN: STRING 1 30 1; 

PKOrC: PACKED ARRAY 10.. 9 J OF CHAR; 
AMOUNT: INTEGER 1 9); 
END; 



Ff le handling reserved words Include: GET, PUT, 
READ, WRITE, RESET, REWRITE, CLOSE, LOCK, SEEK, end 
EOF. 

LONG INTEGERS 

One of the complelnts you see In some of the 
trade publications about UCSD Pascal Is the leek of 
the precision of Its REAL number types. But, again 
the designers have planned ahead. Users Mho need 
extended number lengths with complete accuracy for 
business and scientific applications nay use the 
LONG INTEGER type. LONG INTEGERS ere declared by 
using the standard INTEGER Identifier fol lowed by a 
length enclosed In square brackets. 



VAR X: INTEGERM2); 



Is 



The largest number Inside the square brackets 
limited to 36. 



And "long" constants can be defined In e normal 
manner. 

CONST 10T0FNU7CERS - 12345678987654321; 

Tl» example above would default to a LONG 
INTEGER type. 

CONCLUSION 

The CSI 6809 Implementation of UCSD PASCAL" 
works end It works well. The support from the 
company Is very good. 

This review only touches the surface of the 
features evallabfe In the package. There Is Just 
too much system end not enough writer or space In 
the Journal 1o do It Justice. 

The only problem I faced was the feet that my 
PTA disk driver board Is not totally compatible with 
the SWTPC DC-2 board. Because of this the system 
locks up on booting when It goes over to look for a 
disk on volume #10. Deve Allen gave me the location 
of some of the disk drivers end I got the nerve to 
experiment. Without his help I probably would have 
thrown up my hands end quit. As It was I found that 
I could unplug the cable running to my drives and 
trick the system Into continuing. After this 
everything seemed to work perfect. 

This personal support from the man behind the 
Implemented on Is a very Important plus for the CSI 
package. Dave realizes that the system Is so 
complex that, unless you are another Einstein, you 
can't help but have questions. And, he Is happy to 
answer 1hem for you. 

Another plus for the system Is Its speed. 

16 



Because of the larger 512 byte file blocks, and 
because of the sequent let access which puts 
everything In logical order, disk access seems to be 
very fest and corapl lotion Is amazingly fast. 
Executing or Running a program that has already been 
compl ted appears to be en Instantaneous operation. 

I personally compiled nearly a dozen Pascal 
programs of varying length from several magazines 
and text books. They all ran without a hitch. 

My only complaint Is about the documentation 
supplied by Softech, the company that holds the 
license from UCSD. The manual Is a graphic disaster 
and the style Is befitting a typical government 
bureaucrat. 

On the other hand, the 6809 unique 
documentation which you receive from CSI Is well 
written end attractively printed. It Is easy to 
understand and makes life much simpler. 

There are two things I would like to see with 
the system. A pre-packaged set of drivers for a 
parol lei printer ond a warm start address for the 
main system. The drivers would seve me the work of 
writing my own. The warm start would allow 
re-lnltlel l2lng the system without rebooting when a 
disk hardware problem occurs. It would save the 30 
plus seconds required to re-boot the system. 

UCSD Pascal will be a welcome addition to your 
6809 system. In the long run your Initial 
Investment will hold your software costs down. This 
savings will result because of the portability of 
the system end the large number of users who are 
already using It. Their programs will make your 
1 Ife much simpler. 

Editor's Notes: The L2 Editor above mentioned Is now 
a standard part of the CSI -2 package. For those who 
have purchased this package; a 'FREE* update Is 
aval labia merely by returning the original disk. 
The update will be returned with the L2 Editor and 
any other updates since you purchased your original 
version. 

It should be noted that the current policy of 
CSI Is 1o furnish 'FREE' updates on return of the 
original disk. Few software vendors go to this 
degree of customer support l 

Additionally It sltould be noted that there ere 
several 'USER GROUP' programs that WILL NOT execute 
In 56K. They use too much memory for variable 
storage; also the stack being at the top and the 
heap at the bottom also require memory, therefore. 
In some Instances 56K Is Just not enough. 

The argurment for a 'Warm Start' entry point Is 
valid; however, UCSD did not make any provision for 
this feature. Due to the structure of PASCAL very 
little time would be saved with a warm start entry 
point (actually less that 10 seconds) so no support 
at this time ts available for any other entry point 
then 'Cold Start', 

The necessity for parallel printer routines Is 
another need that Is being filled (so I am told by 
Dave Allen). Dave reports that several users are 
working on this end It will be published In the 
users qrouo newsletter (and 68 Micro Journal ) as 
soon as It becomes available. 

Any bed manor y that your machine might have 
that has been hard to find or unable 1o find by 
normal testing routines, will certainly show up 
using PASCAL. PASCAL, by vlrture of the 'stack' and 
'heap' utilization Is an effective 'memory test' I 



._ 68 Micro Journal 



hlng T 

1771 



A final note for those who find that 1 
PASCAL Is e sometimes affelr. Seems that many 1" 
disk controller chips ere not up to snuff. The good 
ones seem 1o be the T771B001 - 1771802 types. So ff 
you cannot get It to boot or It Is Intermittent: 
check your memory and 1771, 



As more of you stert using this version of 
PASCAL please keep me Informed of your progress and 
especially any procedures or routines that you feel 
will help the rest of us. 



•\JCS0 PASCAL Is e tredemark of the Board of 
of the Univ. of Calif. 

DMW 



Regents 



ADDITIONAL PASCAL INFO 

For those of you who have called or written 
concerning Luc I date PASCAL for the 6809, I cannot 
report anything as we have not received a 6809 
version from Lucldata for review or evaluation. If 
and when we do I will get a review or report 
pub I fshed. 

QMW 



NOTES 2: BUSINESS PROGRAMS 

By: RICHARD G. CAGLE 

App leva Hey Day School 
11103 Sagepark Ln 
Houston, TX, 77089 
71>481-3586 (after 6 pm) 



This article Is a sequel to one published In 
the June Issue. I received severe I letters (one 
from a college prlclpal who liked the article In 
spite of the misspelt words). 

For this Issue, we will get Into some specifics 
of business programming techniques In basic. 

Since these articles are oriented to the first 
time business user of the 6800/6809, some of It may 
be very elementary to the experienced user. 

INTERACTIVE COWUN 1CAT I ON 

The communication between you and your computer 
should be In a form that both of you understand. 
Since your normal language Is not binary or hex, 
then English Is the only choice. Programs should 
have enough Information for e seml-unskl I led 
operator to make Intelligent judgements. As a 
simple example: 

1010 II^UT "DATE",0t 
In this cose, the operator could answer: 
JULY 12,1980 
or 7/12/80 
or 12-jul-eO 
or 7,12,80 
or 71280 

Only the last one would be acceptable since It Is 
the only numeric answer. TSC Extended beslc would 
Issue an error on the first 3 answers .The fourth 
answer ts particularly bad, as It would result In 
Just '7' being entered, since the comma signals the 
end of the Input. SWTPC basics will ask for a 
re-enter for the first one, and would swallow only 
the leading numeric on the next three. 

W Micro Jooma I 



The solution Is to give the operator just a 
little more Info, for example: 

1010 PRINT "PROVI0E DATE'* 

1011 INPUT'UUSE M0OAYR FORM>»,01 
Or, If your operator Is a little dumb: 

tOlO PR|NT»PR0VIDe DATE " 

1011 PRINT"(USE 71280 FOR JUL 12 '80)" 

1012 INPUT" «,D1 

Notice thet the Input area has been lined up with 
the example date. 

The advantage of using a numeric date input Is 
that It can be used In subsequent calculations* or 
can be checked for reasonableness, example: 1015 IF 
D1>123200 GR 01<10100 THEN 1010 This would cause a 
repeat of the date prompt If the date was not In 
this reasonable range. 

In some cases there will be no need to check the 
date. A string Input will suffice If the only use 
is to to print the date on a report. 

If you are using TSC's Extended Basic, there Is e 
DATES command which can be used to retrieve the date 
from the DOS. For example DS=DATES will give you a 
0$ string In the format "DD-MON-vR 1 . 

You may have noticed In the above examples that I 
have deviated from the normal practice of evenly 
spacing line line numbers. I do this to make my 
programs look ugly and to simplify debug. If the 
program bombed at line 1011, the ' 1011 ' tells me it 
Is a part of a sequence that begins at 1010. A 
program can always be made pretty after the 
debugging Is done using a renumberer, such as the 
ones sold by STAR-KITS or other advertisers. 

Getting back to Interactive communication, 
words should be used liberally to avoid operator 
confusion. W.L.King recently sent me his payroll 
program for my opinion. He was very proud of his 
program, and with good reason as It did many things 
well. Since he ran the programs himself end was 
completely familiar with It, he had no need for 
detailed operetor prompting. I'm sure that he will 
not mind If I use his program as an example. This 
Is what the operator saw: 

EMP 1001 MARY JONES 
DAYS WORKED? 5 
EXTRA LABOR? 200 
SALES? 
CORRECTIONS? 

This payroll Is for a sales and service operation. 
They pay a delly salary plus commissions on dollars 
billed for sales and dollars billed for service. 

The employee Is not really needed, unless 
there ere more people than the operator can keep 
track of. For this app 1 1 cat Ion the DAYS WORKED Is 
satisfactory (although a lot of programs. Including 
my own, use a hours worked quantity). The program 
does have a reasonableness check to see If more then 
7 days were Input. The EXTRA LABOR category does 
not tell what units (dol I ars, cents, hours, ergs) 
should be Inputted. EXTRA LA80R(T0TAL DOLLARS 
BILLED) would be better. The computer ' display 
should specify the units that the program needs. 

Keep In mind that It Is Illegal 1o have the 
operator have to whip out the old 4 function 
calculator. After all, part of the justification 
for getting the computer to help In your business 
was to avoid those dreary hours spent with the 
little red eyed monster. 

The SALES? prompt Is pretty obviously Intended 
as a total dollar volume, or Is It thousands of 
dollars? Or, maybe It Is the amount of the sale 
commission. SALES (TOTAL S SOLO) would be clearer. 



-17 



And finally, the CORRECTIONS? prompt. This 
could be asking for how many mistakes were made 
during the week In order for the program to dock the 
employees pay. Assuming you understood that the 
prompt was asking If there were any errors In the 
prior entries, your normal response would be YES or 
Y, NO or N. It didn't work that way! The program 
Is looking for either for no corrections required 
or for a non-zero number If they are required. 
There are two things wrong with this one word 
prompt. First, the computer should never prompt for 
corrections without first displaying what It has 
swallowed. In the above example. I would clear the 
screen ( or skip lines If In scroll mode) and set a 
display: 

BASED ON YOUR INPUTS: 

5.00 DAYS WORKED » $500.00 SALARY 
$200.00 EXTRA LABOR - $30.00 O0MM. 
$0.00 SALES - $0.00 C0MM. 

TOTAL WAGES - $530.00 
ANY CORRECTIONS (Y-YES)? 

This gives the operator a chance to see what was 
entered and the result of the computer calculations. 
This gives the operator the responsibility of 
performing a reasonableness check of the data. Of 
course a check can be placed In the program to warn 
the operator If some limit has been exceeded but at 
the current rate of Inflation. this check would 
have to be redone every yeart Note that all of the 
money amounts are shown with dollar prefix and with 
two decimal places shown. This Is done with 
"0IGITS-2" In SWTPC basics or with PRINT USING In 
TSC Extended basic. Note also the new corrections 
prompt. It clearly tel Is that If you hit "Y" you 
wl II get a chance to make corrections, otherwise for 
any other character struck, you will proceed with 
the program. This was the second thing wrong with 
the one word prompt - It did not al low a default 
option or Indicate the 1ype of response desired. 
The new program logic would be: 

l*FUT"ANY CORRECTIONS (Y-YES)". A$ 

IF LEFT$(A$,1)-"Y" THEN 1300 

which will return 1o the line 1300 Initial entry 
program If the answer Is anything beginning In n Y n . 
Or the same routine In TSC Extended would be: 



PRINT"ANY CORRECTIONS (Y-YES)" 
IF INCH$(0)-»Y» THEN 1300 

The advantage of the INCH$(0) command 
carriage return Is needed. 



Is that no 



While we are discussing yes-no prompting, there 
Is an Important point: A smoothly flowing program 
should do most of the work, with the operalor 
hitting the big fat RETURN' key from time to time 
signalling 'thats right, beby, go-man-gol r . 
Therefore the logic should default to allow a 
■RETURN 1 to be used as the normal answer. In the 
above example the default was a'NO* choice. I have 
adapted the convention of always telling In the 
prompting message what the non-default answer Is, 
like the (Y-YES) In the above. The words that make 
up the prompt should also be compatible. For 
example: 

IS THIS tfONG (N-N0) 
ARE THERE ERRORS (N-N0) 

In both of these prompts there Is some double 
negative ambiguity. The following would be 
preferred : 

IS THIS RIGHT(N-NO) 

In a few cases, you may find that a particular 
routine Is critical, and may want 1o force the 
operator to deliberately make a choice* This can 

10 



occur when there Is no means 1o make corrections 
subsequent to the step and the results are final. 
Use something like this: 

WARNING! 

LAST OPPORTUNITY FOR CORRECTIONS 
IS THIS CORRECT (Y-YES OR t*HQ)7 

And the program logic would check for either a f Y t 
or , N I and restate the warning If neither were 
Inputted. 

In the same category as yes-no prompts are the 
program pause prompts. These are used when the 
computer puts a lot of data on the screen, and time 
must be given for the operator to look at It before 
continuing. although no action Is needed 
Inroad lately. Flex has a Pause feature, but I prefer 
to leave It disabled and to program In pauses where 
they belong In the program. Most of my programs use 
a simple: 

1410 INPUT "READY". A$ 

with no logic to check the answer A$. However, my 
son managed to Interpret this as a yes-no prompt and 
was surprised when the program continued, even when 
he keyed In 'NO 1 to say he was not ready. In newer 
programs, I am using: 



1410 I^UT"(HIT RETURN TO O0NTINUE)".A$ 
Or. for TSC Extended: 

1410 PRINT»(PRESS ANY KEY TO OONHNUE)" 

1411 AN$-INCH$(0) 

A pause prompt would typically be followed by a 
screen clear. If In page mode* This can be done In 
either of two ways. One would be 1o set up a 
subroutine: 

20 PRINT 0*$06),a«$<22):RETURN 
and use 'G0SUB 20' anytime a screen clear was 
wanted. Or. early In the program a variable can be 
defined: 

20 C$*CHR$U6)tCK*$(22) 
and anytime a screen clear Is desired then 'PRINT 
C$ ( wl II do It. 

The use of page mode or scrol I mode Is a 
personal opinion choice. but I prefer the page mode, 
primarily because with my stock SWTPC CT-64 terminal 
the results are much more predictable. 
Occasionally, when I am displaying data that 
slightly exceeds one page, i will use control 
characters (Issued by the program) to transfer to 
scrol I mode, then back to page mode. 

Here Is a technique for crowding more data onto 
the screen during Input. The Input will cause a 
I Ine-feed/return but you may want to print something 
on the same line. This example Is part of an option 
routine In my payroll program for calculating time 
worked by entering clock times for IN and OUT off of 
the time sheet. 

lf*>UT"IN",A$ 

(processing of A$ goes on here) 

PRINT TAB(50);C*fiS(11);»0UT"; 

lff»UT B$ 

(B$ Is processed and C$ calculated) 

PRINT TAB (33) ;CHR$( II); "EQUALS ";C$ 

The CHR$(11) Is the vertical tab on my terminal , and 
the above example allows 1wo Inputs and the results 
to be put on a single line, allowing one weeks worth 
of time to be displayed on a single page* TSC 
Extended does have a MAPUTO 1 carrwend that Inhibits 
the p ? f prompt and the C/R-LF, however It will 
print the next print statement on top of tfte 
Inputted data. 

. W Micro JourniJ 



In most business programs there Is a need to 
round off dollars to two significant places. The 
standard routine Is: 

A»INT<A*IO<H.5>/100 
This routine Is not needed In TSC Extended because 
the PRINT USING statement will perform the rounding: 

PRINT USING 'TOTAL WAGE $$##.#', A 

Another Interesting feature of TSC Extended 
print using Is the ability to use a variable to 
define the print jslng field* For example: 

E$="TOTAl WAGE $ $##.#» 

PRINT USING E$,A 

Which accomplishes the same thing as the previous 
example. Using tMs In a subroutine can save a few 
bytes of code* 

TAPE-BASED BUSINESS PROGRAMS 

In spite of my negative discussion of tape 
based business systems In the last article, J did 
get some enquiries about buying cassette programs. 
I do not have any to sel I or to even give awayl 
Yes, I did use tape at one time, and t stll I have 
the programs, but I do not consider them useable! II 
Tape users should refer to a series of articles by 
Ron Harvey In Kl lobeud, In 
Oct f 77, Nov '77, and Dec '77. In addition to 
providing a useable payroll program, he also 
explains the techniques to use to get data on and 
off of the tape. 

That Is all for this Issue. The next sequel 
will be several months from now* If you either need 
Information about some particular aspect, or have a 
favorite algorythym or routine that you would like 
to share with 68' readers, please write. We will 
probably discuss the use of TSC's Extended basic 
random files, as I have already received one request 
for help* 

STYLOGRAPH WORD PROCESSING SYSTEM 



Or. James Pomerentz 

Department of Peychology 

SUNY/Buffelo 

Buffalo, New York 1423B 

The STYLOGRAPH word proceeelng ay atom fHla a wall 
recognized need for SS-50 bue eye terns. (STYLOGRAPH 
■■8 nosed STYLUS but because of a trademark conflict 
the neae hue been changed. 3 It 1a available from 
Sonex Syetema, Box 238, WUUemevllle, NY 14221. 
STYLOGRAPH It preeently the only fully Interactive 
text proceeelng package available for SS-SO ueero. 
It 1a available only for the BB09. For those S800 
uatre who heve been conal daring upgrading to the 
BB09, STYLOGRAPH aey well be the product to 
convince the* that the tlae hae finally come to 
convert. Th1a wet certainly the caea with na; once 
I mw STYLOGRAPH working, I ordered a 8809 proceoeor 
board straight away and soda the rather eimplo herd- 
were end eoftwere changes that were required. Th1a 
text prooeeelng package la the Batch of any text 
proooeelng packege I hove teen, Including those for 
the 8-100 bue end a number of cemmerdel eyatene 
(■any of which It quickly puta to eh ana.} 

Much of today r a word prooeeelng aoftware hae been 
■ odeled after prog raw a developed on lorge acele 
ooaputere. On theaa eyeteajs, termlnele ere Inter- 
faced with the meln computer et low boud ratee end 
text flieo ere handled In a botch aoda eo thet text 
editing end word proceeelng were actually eoporete 
operetlone. 8uoh It the esse, for example, with 
TBC'e axel lent EDIT end PR combination. 

One of the f 1 ret people to realize the extra conven- 
lenoee and cepabllltlea thet could ba achieved with 



e ml croconputer wtt Michael Shreyer, who wrote the 
Electric Pencil for the 8080 processor. Hony other 
eoftwere peckegee hove Improved on Shreyer'e Ideas 
but the generel concept remelne the same - namely 
thet the full text should be visible on the screen 
end should 1mmed1etely reflect changes ee they ere 
mode from the keyboord. Furthermore, the editing 
end proceeelng ehould oxlot ee one ccnplete peckege. 
STYLOGRAPH met clearly designed with thee a t dee la In 
mind. While STYLOGRAPH contetne msny advances over 
the Electric Pencil, the overell strsl ghtforwafd 
deaign end eeee of uee, for which the Electric 
Pencil 1e well known, ere retained. 

Commands 
There ere octuolly three modeo of operation while 
uolng STYLOGRAPH: the "ESCAPE", "INSERT 1 *, end 
"SUPERVISOR* 1 modes. In the ESCAPE mode, you con 
ecroll up end down through the text end perform ell 
of the editing functions. In the INSERT node, you 
con type 1n the text ae you would on e typewriter. 
The SUPERVISOR mode 1s for 1nteroct1ng with the dlek 
operotlng system snd for outputlng to the printer. 

All of the ESCAPE commends requl rs only a single 
keystroke snd the keys Involved ere orronged log1~ 
celly on the keyboerd to moke them easy to remember. 
For example, all of the cursor end scrolling keye 
ere located under the right hond, ee so: 

U I 
JUL 

M , ■ 

The five cursor control keys tUKL,] sre errengsd 1n 
e cross. Typing en "I" moves the cursor up, an "L" 
moves 1t one spsce to the right, end so on. The 
center "K" key 1s en express key thet moves the 
cursor sltsmetely to the fer left end right of the 
screen. The scrolling keys (UOH.j ceuse the screen 
to scroll up snd down, with the "UN" keye scrolling 
one line end the "0." keye scrolling a full pegs. 
The cursor stsys in Its position while scrolling. 
If you try to ecroll off the screen the cursor will 
sutomotl celly move to the next Una. Similarly, If 
you try to move the cursor off the screen, STYLO- 
GRAPH will scroll to keep the cureor on the scrssn. 

The ueuel complement of seerch, replace, copy, block 
mova and delete commends ere evol leble end fully 
ImpUmantod. They ere ell quite eimplo to ubb but I 
will expleln the uee of the replece command eo you 
con see the cere with which STYLOGRAPH wee daelgned. 
After you hit the "R" key, en area 1s clesrsd out on 
the top of the screen end the rest of the text 
sppssrs below this sree. In the top of the screen 
two mssssgee will eppeer asking you for the atrlng 
you want repleced end the etrlng you went to replece 
1t with. After you hove entered theee, the cureor 
will then move to the next occurrence of thle etrlng 
end eek you 1f you went the etrlng replaced or not. 
Simply enewer "Y" or "N n . The acreen will Immedi- 
ately reflect the change end eek you if you went to 
go on to the next string. You may, 1f you are 
breve, enswer "A", 1nd1cst1ng thst you wont si I the 
ocoursncss of the etrlng changed without being 
prompted on seen one. The Importance of ell of thle 
1e thst you always see exactly whet 1e going on. 
Also, there ere clearly underotondeblo English 
messages which eppeer during the editing proceae. 

Ae you ere typing 1n e Una 1n the INSERT 
mode, there 1e no need to wetch for the end of the 
11 no elnce STYLOGRAPH will teke a word thet over- 
flows off the end of the 11 ne, Insert 1t on the next 
Una snd bump ell of the following text to the right 
(end, 1f neceseery, dawn to the next Una.) STYLO- 
GRAPH eutomett celly ecrolle the text up or down 1f 
the cureor trlee to move off the ecreen. 



'66' Micro Journal 



19 



In either the ESCAPE or INSERT aodee you aey eteo 
execute e eeriee of CONTROL coaasnde. Theee coa- 
aende eerve e variety of functione. There ere three 
delete coaaende: a1 ngLe cherecter, word, end Una. 
Whenever STYLOGRAPH encounters en error, you h1LL 
heer a "belL" froa your toralnet. There 1e e con- 
trol coaaend to dtepLey the error aeeeege (again In 
EngLiehJ end then return the ecreen to noraeL. A 
"page atatua" coaaend ceuaee the acreen to ba re- 
written with etetue inforaetion. Th1a fncLudee 
thlnge euch ee line Lengthe, f 1 Le neaee, moaory 
left, end eo forth. There 1e e CONTROL comaand that 
ceuaee the foraettlng coaaanda to dlaappeer froa the 
eoraen. The teb functione Caat, dear, end aovo to 
teb) ere CONTROL ooaaonde thet operete auoh like 
typewriter teb functione. 

One exception to the "what you eea le whet you get" 
ruLe le thet aeny edvenced printer capabilities, 
auoh as boldface, underlining, euperecrlpt end eo 
forth, elapLy cannot ba ahown on the ecreen. The 
eolutlon to thle probLea la cLever end fun to wetch. 
Whenever e cherecter hoe eoae opeoleL ohereo- 
teHetlc, 1t le dlepLeyed on the eoreen 1n low 
Intenelty. If you sent to see whet character* Btl o 
the cherecter hee, you hit the control key {controL 
*0" Indloetlng "overlay") which oeueae the oherecter 
to be replaced by enother cherecter. If, for 
axeapLe, a word hee been underlined, the word wILl 
be replaced by e etrlng of underllnee. Hitting the 
key again will return the acreen to normel. 

01 ak Interfecee 
STYLOGRAPH le fully Interfeced to the FLEX dlek 
operating eyetaa. You aey load eddltloneL M Lee et 
eny point In the text end eeve ell or portlone of e 
text to e fILo. Th1e kind of flexibility aokee It 
eepodoLly eeey to oreete "bo1 Lerplete" docueante, 
ee they ere celled. You con output eny or ell pegee 
to the printer or e text f 1 Le for Leter epooUng. 
You aey alec execute Boat FLEX coaaanda froa 
STYLOGRAPH. Sonax haa Indlcetad that Hlcrowere 
Corporation w1 1 L ba aerketlng e verelon for Uie1 r 
OS-9 dlak operating ayataa and e verelon for UN I FLEX 
wILl eppeer eerLy next year. 

Fo matting 
Foraat coaaanda ara entered ee norael taxt while you 
ere In the INSERT aode, vary auch as you woo Id on 
tha TSC taxt procaaelng eyetsa. Theee foraettlng 
coaaanda will, of couree, not eppeer on the printed 
output. Sapereta headers end footara with page 
nuabera and tit lee can be deflnad. Cantering, right 
J uetl f Icatl on, fuLL juetl flcetlon, Indents, pagi- 
nation, Una lengthe, spacing, vertical tabbing, 
Left aergln, paga nuabera, and paga Langthe can ell 
ba apedfled. Moreover, a "ghoet hyphen" feetura 
1a Included thet aLLowa Long worde to be hyphenatad 
during formatting onLy 1f tha word heppene to falL 
at tha end of e Line. 

One of the truLy unique characteristics of 
STYLOGRAPH 1a that tha taxt 1a foraetted on tha 
acraen auch as It wILL appear on tha flnaL printed 
output. Tha affects of aoet of tha formatting 
ooaaende ara dlractLy vie^ble on the ecreen. In 
oontreet to word procaaelng packegea using aaperete 
editor end proceeaor prograne, with STYLOGRAPH 
there le LlttLe nead to gat a printed output to 
BBBurs thst everything 1s foraetted correctly. 
Hasdsrs, footara, paga nuabara, Juetl f1 cation, and 
eo forth appear dlractLy on the screen. If you heva 
been aurprlead et printout tlea whILe using a batch 
aoda prooaaaor, you wILl appreciate thle feeture. 
Also, 1t 1b fun to chenge eome pereneter, euch ee 
the Una Length or Juetl flcatlon, end Bee the entire 
ecraan reforaet eLaoet Inetantly before your ayaa. 

STYLOGRAPH supports both TTY end epedelty prlntere. 
Tha epedelty prlntere, auch ee the NEC SplnwHtor, 

20 . 



Dleblo, or Quae cen do letter queLlty printing and 
have e nuaber of advanced faaturea that STYLOGRAPH 
usee. If the Unea era fulLy right and Laf t juetl- 
fled, STYLOGRAPH microspaces between elL of the 
Lettero to even out the line rether then Insert 
epecaa batwaen tha worde, reeuLtlng In e auch 
cleaner looking copy. A nuaber of other printing 
optlono ere eleo eupported on this prlntsr ss tha 
following exaaplee, teken froa the aenuaL, will 
ehow: 

cqarror oontrollable pltrii 
end Una epeclng 



euperecMpt 1 , subecMptp 
UntftrUnt* ovemne, 



or *K- 



If you heva s nort-opeololty prlntsr (eg., DscwHtsr] 
and think you alght aova up to e epedelty printer 
eoaedey, I would edvl ee buying one of the specialty 
printer verelone Instead of ths TTY verelon sines 
ths epsolslty verelone can drive e TTY printer but 
not vice veree. 

Oocuaantetlon 
Tha manual that coaas with STYLOGRAPH 1b one of the 
aaeleat to raad I have encountered. It 1e designed 
so thst even an Inexperienced ueer cen leero the 
eyatea with LlttLe or no eaaletenoe. The new ueer 
cen alt down et tiie terainel with the aenuaL at hand 
end teern by actual use of the ayataa. A taxt file 
of pert of the manuaL Itaalf 1s IncLudad on tha dlak 
to experlaent with and to aee how en actual taxt 
file Looke. One alnor objection thet I heve to the 
aenuoL 1e thet thera 1a no index. This Is only e 
ainor quibble, einoe the table of contente le 
logically errenged end couplets. A eumeary of the 
commands le Included 1n en appendix. I would edvlee 
copying thle pege end keeping It neer tiie terainel 
while leerning the eyetea. 

Coot end Updates 
Thle review 1e beeed upon ay use of STYLOGRAPH with 
e G1m1x B0x24 boerd, but I heve seen It work with e 
CT-82 end e nuaber of other tertHnoLe (eg.,80RX). 
It 1e designed to work with any teralneL that hee e 
cLeer ecreen function end cureor eddreeelng end 
which rune et 9600 beud or better. Since teralnele 
end prlntere very eo auch In the wey they operete, e 
different verelon of STYLOGRAPH must be purcheeed 
for eech combination of printer end terainel. 
FortuneteLy, you ere not left in the Lurch 1f you 
buy eoae new periohereLo elnce Sonex will update end 
replece your verelon with enother for e aooeet fee. 
The preeent updete fee 1e 930.00 pLue eny price 
difference. The current price for STYLOGRAPH 1e 
1150 for proportionoL epodng printer verelone end 
1135 for tty type printer verelone. Thie 1e lees 
then heLf the price of elalLor eoftwere eold for 
other eyeteae. 

ConcVuefone 
Since writing end editing text, whether It be 
eeeeabLer fllee, hlgh-Level Lenguege progreae, 
Letters, aenuecHpte or whatever, Is the aoet tiae 
consualng use of aost coaputsrs, eny eoftwere thst 
Bskss this teak ssslsr 1s certainly welcoae* Ths 
slmpls, human engineered design end ths fuLL 
coapLeaent of foraettlng coaaende ehouLd aeke It 
parti cuLarly well eulted to aeny office 
envl ronaente. 

Ossplts STYLOGRAPH'S asny advanced text procsssing 
faaturea asny ussrs will find thst 1t will also aam 
its keep ss en editor for BA6IC end eeeeabLer text 
files. When you ere editing, the text 1e eLweye 
fully v1 eible. You cen elweye eee the line you ere 

*6fl' Micro Journal 



working on along with the adjacent Unaa. Thara la 
no noad to roll at the prog am to see 1f you hove eieda 
eny errore. The ability to aae the etructure of the 
progrea 1a e greet eeeet. The live, on-eoreen 
foreettlng 1a aetonl ehlngly feet with STYLOGRAPH, 
end unlike with tiia Electric Pencil, for exewple, It 
eeeee to be lapoeelble to outtype the program; no 
netter whet elee It noy be doing, It elweye oeeae to 
find tlae to eooept cherectere typed In. It la 
difficult to appreciate ell the v1 rtuee of cureor 
beeed editing until you try to 90 beck to editing 
uelng e noma I line editor. 

For ueere who el reedy hove e lerge nuaber of text 
fllae on hand that have been prepared for out putting 
with a eeperete text prooeeeor progrea, the 
converelon prooeee la feet end elaple. I hove 
converted aaverel text fllae prepered with TBC'e 
EDIT for PR with no problawa wneteoever. 

81 nee I hove bean alnglng STYLOGRAPH *e preleae, you 
auet be wondering 1f It hee eny feulta. There ere 
eoee feeturee 1t leote thet aey be required by ooae 
ueere* It cennot hertdle filee larger then aewory, 
eo long text file* auet be broken up Into eeotlone. 
Sonex eeye thet thle reet Motion wee neceeeary to 
aeke the ay a ten elaple froa the ueer'e etendpolnt 
end to aeke 1t rin ea feet ee poeelble. For ay o*n 
editing I noraelly breek up filee when tiiey get too 
lerge enywey. There ere alio no provlelone for aal l- 
11 et generation, I would think thet en auxiliary 
prograa of thl type would be e valuable addition to 
STYLOGRAPH, end X would not be eurprleed to eee It 
offered eoon* 

STYLOGRAPH la certelnly e welcoae addition to the 
extenetva line of eoftwere already available for tiie 
eaoe. With ell of the exellent, high-level eoftwere 
available It 1e at rang a thet euoh e peokege hee not 
eppeered eooner. In eny ceee, 89-flD ueere no longer 
need auable exoueee or ohenge the aubj act whan they 
ere eeked ebout Interectlve text prooeeelng for 
their wechtnee. 



POSITION IrOEPCNOCW CODE 
FOR THE 6800 

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tmc babbi moM X (tmc «NOCt MoiiTiit coaTCmm) To x«?35. Bt 

CfcANOlMO TKC C0M1CMTI Of ImC tNOCI BC«I|TC« WC CAN A00BCSS AMY 
LOCATION IM MCMOAV. 

* »4l|Tlft« IHOlNfHOlHf PiflflftAkl CAM: Bf M«lMtM |T r il]l 

loaoimb thc imofi *Ciitti» wit" a amqwm ^ocaiiom in tut *>«oa«*« 

AMD THC« Vltlt |M0<SI0 AOORtllFNfi THAOUfiHOuT tK( flatly. ThC 

0"l' ■■eiLCHl Alt CITTlNt fttt AMOWM «00*tll INTO T » f 1*00 
BCtilTCB AMQ KtEM*B« ti*(i or Hi tuHBCMl VA1.UI At 1«I PPOCHam 
MUNI. Wl MUST «C All! TO H'OOITt TMC IMOIt RCIlSTCft'l C0M1CX11 

to allow AoaniiitNA M o«c tma* a ?^6 ittc bamoc. 

LCTJ COMSIOCM TMC PPOBLCm Of OCTTINC A AMOVM lD(«TION INTO 
T-l IHOC* irAUtt*. Wf WAMl IS LOAO fHt lllOLUtf tODMll OF A 
KMOVM lOdf ION l« 1 M [ PftQAlAH UtTfl | HI | *ICI|Hl, m « Il WC « f i 1 , < 

wife ii m miMuniin wmicm l4aoi thc comicmii or tMf irocmh 
touMTii imtq K, Tmc totniii er rmi iwit«u<tioh wouto ixr» itn«f 

t* TMC RMOVN LOCATIOM OM WMlOi «C WOUIO ftllC AIL «CtAl1«t 
«OOACIICS< WC 00m*1 m*»| « liNOLC IMSTRVCTIOM MMICm WILL 00 
(Nil. BOT WC Cam WMITC a InOMT sCCTiOm, or COOC WM^CH ACT* LUC 
I liiHird PC TO X i-»TA„r tirm, TmI riRit Iff* ■» TO OCT PC OMTO 
tmc aTACm. A ^58 (Bbamch SubRoumnc) i-it»u<tio* will push im 

CVMRfMT PC OMTO TMC |TACA 4 Bt fUNft a iW OiI*LAC(mCmT OM |k|$ 
8SR» HI IVOIO Awr p>i>vtiidA or moa-.l A-qCPA- r LO w. fai eSR If 
fOLLOWIO B< PVJL A* STA A TMSTBUCliOMl WmICm RCITORC Tn( |<tAC4 

*.>1NT|A .no LOAO THf PC VA1UC IMTO HfllOHT. *" I - 1 i I . TMf i * £. C ■ 
AtfilSTfR 1$ tOAOCO riON 1-1 TtMIOIitT |TORa0,C L0C*TtOM (KTCmP 
AMO XTtMP«(] |« »CMQIr, TmH H«rO»»l» STORaCC || ALIO UICrUL 

com latci mani pui *t iom or tmc kmowm location. 

S1MCC XTCMP MOLOI THC NtflN OftOCR »Mt Of ThC « 4 tC AOQRCSS, 
WI CAW IMjCBImCMT TMC IA1C iOOtfll tM »TT*S Of 2^ B'TCI B v 

iMacNY«ftii« xTChp. t-h allohi ui to «om tmc hm ■oo»cii 

TH«0UC»»0UT HIMOITT, THII TCCMMftUl* 1M COmIIWaTiOM V i t .> THf X 

to X+?^5 *a«*i or iMOiico Aoaar !•<■«» allowi «clati*c aoorc9ii«« 

AMiVMCBT IH TMt -{HO"- Of THT (4«i'T», 

riOURE t RCUTINC TO OCT KKOwtJ LtXATlON 



AM 



BSR AOR 

PVJL A 

STA A XTChP 

PUL A 

STA A XTD4»*I 

LOX XTCIap 



PUSH PC ONTO STACK 

OCT TMt HJOK OROCT BYTE 

STORE rT AT XTEHP 

GET TWC LOW 0ROD> BYTE 

STORE tT AT XTOMP+1 

LOAO X PROM XT04> 



W Micro Journal 



-^1 



PUTTING IT INTO PRACTICE! 

Litj tool it to-r (iamolci »' too nig rot * poiifja* 

tNOCPCNOCMI A*GO?4U. flPfT VC MA*f INT COOC UN I < M LOAD) INC 

mocx kbiihp vitN ihc iaSe «oor(S9. This muit it tmc fiMt 

txecutiotc cooc in tmc phoooam. * J1 /m**** £ 

Arxrt Tnij cooc is cxccutco, ihc letoiurt aooacis or AOR j» 

storco in xTCmP aid in thiC inbo rcsiStm. To aooacss % 

iDcn d* HiTHifl Z""->. ».rn io«^i[. or ACR, *< u»f 1*0(1 EC 

tDC«(»m HIT- A Or l#4AC^HtRl (OUAL 10 T-t 6Up ( »[f( «i itttfCIM 

ADR amo t*c ochaco aoo«et>s. To 40»ffcas lo<*tiom ruMTNia 
rQRtu*D to* tfiiMjo ADA ) v« mv»t my £***•€ »« t«sc *oomsi 
sioico I* x.. 

1t» tn« to 0(t(iiiN( tmc iklativc aoomiscs rot ^k 

LOCtTION IN TMC »«OC»AK, \T lOU l|)(Klt( THC ■■0C4« (*M« ^ 
rOI ALL Or INC INOOCO I |AL ACf«CHtS } VITN ADR LOClItO Al &KW, 

the- tmc AiiotvTC aoorcisis him. tc tmc fitiAiivr Oitn.ACCNCNis. 

r>r*CvPJCM tnai TmC MOOiix 19 PODi ION » *or FCNJOfXT. YOU Can 
CrtOosr tni itartino <o&»caa roi case or mmoinq tnc o i BrAttMt* tj. 
Tm»s run asscmilt ONouLO oc juit to oct r*rsc *oo»cttE&. Artti 
iou rut thc« imfa the hooran (m pt*cc or twt ouh/Mt rnuu), 

tOV Cam MAMCHOlt IT tMrVMnt tOU tflt*.. 

fDl A PROBtif LONQt* THAN 2^S tlTES, T-C HAtC AOOtCSt 
MUJT tC MOOiriCO S» TNC PRODA* it >1 RUHj.. T* I 1 If «CCC)BaRt 
•ICAUit OT f||| ?^ »if[ LmM 0*1 I NO [I(ft iDDM 41 I ** , Th| |C1T 

vat TO Nooii-y fits aOOP.Ch ll BV incCkCntinO Or OCCb r«irNT I no 
XTD-P anO TnC»i LOtOMD THC mot* IUI)T[X VMM Tnc tfOOIMCO Ii1( 
A00A(1J, Till iOOir iCillOH CAN If M«rO*NfO AT ANY *Ctl*T IN TMf 
MODUM, OL/T IT mm OICOhC vCRf n*no TO ACC» TMC* Or TNC 
CVMYft'1 *AlvC OF TMC OAlC iOORCSS. OnC SOLUTION TO THIS pIOIlCm 
It tO *tIP iHt 0BIOINAL IA1C l»KI1 I" 1[P»I*T[ «E«OtT ANO 

ttlOAD *.£**> rftOM IT ttrOil CAC« WOO If lCAtt«N. ANOTHEI IHIfTtM 

tS TO RCCR AIL INT NOOl r ICAT I0N1 IN A SlNEtC tCCTION Of t*C 
piCdiH, t«i» II IHt ipMOKm imt I N^[ UICD. 

LlT| LOO* AT THE CO*T*Ov lOUTitrl rO« i MMIT01 •iQCtx. 
fflll HtVflHt AECEMi ft f.fl CNA1ACTEII COMH.ND * h o JUHp , TC | 

■ UMOUTINC OtTCHNINCO »» TpC COMNA«0, I'w 1/tCO BSR • • TO coninol 
riOV VMNIN TNC CONTROL H0t>TINC ANO INOClCO JSR'O (j*Jlr# 
SlIS^OUTINc) TO OCT TO TNC lURAOUTlNtJ. ti«N tUOROUTlNC MtVlHtl 
CONIPtOt TO IHI CONTftOL ROUTJMC VHCaI It IS TlNllMCO. A HJJlTlOh 
INOCH t«Ot»" *4\>«* TAOLC' CONTAINS Hi ThC 1?Cp Vni(m KOOlfy THC 

■ A|C AOONCSI. Ir TNII JUMP TABIC IS KCPT TO CXSS IHAP* lltf StTTJSj 
It EiM ft L5UH0 IKOII t«C *«* 111! tODIClf, In f n I 1 POUTiOb 
CHAAlOtS IN ITS LtSrtTM vill mot ChahoC THE tf I AS/ 1 VC 0« IPI. ACCHf NTS 
OT THI NChaINDI* Ot THE MOORAH^ FlBURt ||C0«Ta|H1 rLOVtHilll 
fOn ThC COmTAOL ROUTIMC, TNC JUNA TaSC I , *«9 A UH*l( SUMOUtlNt. 

Txt COMWANO tOOA SlAllS VITH A AOVTInC TO f t HO tNC SASC 

'Dotru. Tnis is roiLowfo sv ah I/O hovtimc wnicn iuti ovt a T 

iND ViiltJ TO* A TWO CMARACTtA INPUT CONlNANO. Tu I S COMMAND IS 

tON»CNMO TO * IINSLt |M[ COHhaNQ COOf ITONTC in SHE A 

Af C jhul A toi . THC COtfMANO LOO* T«(N TulNiJ COhTPOL OVf* tO THE 

.-■.■--» •TLI, 

\n TNC JVMP TAStt, TNC CONRANO COOC IS COKPANCO 10 CaCn 
Or TNC AiLOVCO COOCS ANO, it A NATCH It rOURO, a« IROCJCCO 4V«P 
TO TMC •CKCTCO SVSMQU1IMC It CAXCUTCO. it NO NAttN 10 fOVHO, 
CONTROL IS RCTUNRCO TO fNC CONMAMO LOOr. PROSNAM TCOV IS TN[N 
tOANCnCO tACX TO TNC STAIT Of ThC PtOOSAM* 

At TN[ CO«»ANO COOC It tVCCCt I1»C1 V COAi»A*tO ro CACN 
POtSlOLC COOC, TnC VAL.VC STOiCO I* XTCptP TS IRCRtRENTrO AMO 
AfLOAOCO MITO X WACNCVCN tUt ADONCSS Of SnC KftT 1VIR0VTINC fl 
OUT Of SANOK rod IROCXCO A0OSCSS»Nt VlTN TwC CV«*CNT tAtC 

22 



'ODAItt. t#CN I NlCftCMCNt INC NOVCI TNC SASC AOOIIII 2^6 STTCS 
rONwARO. Ir a t/fit LANOC CNAMSC M TMC SAfE aOORCSS Wa t 
P.C0UMC0, A CONSTANT COULO tC AOOtD TO XTCHPf Ot tUSTRACffO ritO* 
IT. TON CHANCCS UP TO IK STTCS IT TANCt Lltt COOC TO UAC 

incncncntinr or occacmcnt i ms,Pa«t or tmc cooc roi * jump iaolc 
IS ti«OtrN IN f IOVRC HI, 







f f*l>ci'ii anr»* '> 

4ifty AVA fctfMJAAAiO 



I 4 /n/4 4 #M*tfH 

J f «*)lMAf J ;j MttM 

"X" 

U«L»t*re I J r#* rt**<*«Hnv to* 
i<tM*i» t#*f r***j ♦r+f* r^frtr c«ir r« 4 

f 

I^JHS^tSsr 

— * — 1 




mi to*-.** a t»" i" * 

fl fMtltS* TO t**f A t 



* J " I fy tmt titi 7*4 



-iu.f*>/i- 




. i-p. 

T ] ta|i»prn|l^ 



I ttti* r 4t !tnf}d, FjX 



"" T"*J"" ! *"*"-wn.. MM , .... 



I **»r ** **r* *rrt r i*i£t#rj*r 




tmt*L yiitwT/vt 



Fit*. II 



fir,** T# I Tl4«# I 



t-AM*t f »*# f |Mp«| AlfP^trRfb 



;ea Mloro Journal 



CtCN tusiouTtur ocsuioci i tn ■ttc coot icsucncc in tnc 

VUNP TAIL C I COMPAAC A TO TMl COMMAND COOC (iVO S'TIt), ISANCNI 
4IOVM13 TNC JVN» »f HOI CStlAL (TWO SYTCs)f 4N» JU*P TO TNI 
SUJROUTINI (TWO ITTtl). Tmlt(lt| THAT UP 10 24 COHNAND cooes 
COUtO It IMNtCNiCMTCO I" A JkfMP TA«LC iCil THAU (25 •»»«• LOOO. 
it 9H| |4SI tQ»Mt|| HI/IT fC >HCtl«CnT C0» fOU» A00IT10HAI •YtCI 

me nciujscoI FKntiKiT XTEMP (om s»m) anq 10*0 x (3 into}. 
riautr III iHovt 1 icctioh or 1 poitio* iio(»cnb(nt jynp tai».c. 

OnCC TNC MOUAi HAS NCACKCO ThC IUSI0UTINC ICLCCTCO ST 
TME COMMAND. THC I/O MOUTIMCI IB TMC [Oa^TCl'l QPCIATIH 

itSTCN yiti p«oia|iv sc i||d(d. Wit* HIKBUO on iimi^ai 

tTlTIMl, THtJl SSUMMCI *.« I MITTCN *i i -. * • ? u « ' - I l ■ & Wl 

VtC ICOULAA JSR 1 ! TO ACCtll TMC". A »IOti(N OCCUOS VlTK 
POATA MM I CM ICtUIHI THAT X POINT TO TNC CKAOACTCO ITIIII TO 

SC OUTPUT. IN Tttll CJ,SC X, VHICN l| POINT)** IONCWMCIC IN INI 
256 SYTCI POCCCCOINO IHf |TA|T Of TNC SUINOUTINCj NUIT IC 

cnanbco tcroic POATA it usco. 

It TwC OUTPUT 1TOIM0 II MOT 10CA1C0 tlTMlK 2^6 STTTI Of X, 

W« HUIT 00 A TWO ittc aooiiiOn to XTEMP A«0 XTCMP*I . Wncm TMC 
• TUNA II t CIS TNAM J^C» KTCI f*ON X, d»L* xtEMP*1 NKV0I TO II 

cnanico scroic XTEMP <• loaoco into X. In cithcn cm tmc 

AMOUNT WNtCN MUSI Of AOOCO CAN SI CALCULATCO St SUSTpaCT i Ml TNC 
CUHCH1 LOCATION Or X rlON TNC ADDNCll Of THC MOfT OTtC Or f«C 
|1«JN«*. 

A SOItTIQN IMOCPCNOCNT lUMOUTrNC W"lCN CAN SC UICO TO 
CAlCULATC ICIATIVC DI1PI.ACCNCNTI IS «P Vf ■ SClOW. If ALIO 
kLLVlfSlTtf 10-t if THI riCNSIOjUll ItlNTlftNCE} lAtllfl. 



f IGURC I II 



PIC JUMFTABLE 



CCMURE COOC TO FIRST IMPLEMENTED COOC 
BRANCH AAOUfC JUMP If MOT CQUAL 
USE INOEXEO JUMP TO GET TO FIRST ROUTINE 
RCPCAT FOR SECOND COMONO COPE 



tabic Cmp a #193 

fcVtf T1 

JSR $6E r X 

T! CMP A #U9 

6ME T2 

JSR $99. X USE INOEXEO JUMP TO GET TO SECOND ROUTINE 

REPEAT AS NEEOEO 



INCREMENT I NO XTEMP INCREASES BASE AOORESS 
XTEMP Br $100. 1HEN NEW BASE IS UOAOEO INTO X 
FIRST ROUTINE BEYONO NEW BASE AOORESS 



t6 



INC 


XTEMP 


LOX 


XTEMR 


C*P A 


#4a6 


BNE 


t6 


JSR 


$*2,X 


CMP A 


tec 



ROUTINE STARTS fc*Z BEYOND NEW BASE 
CONTINUE WITH OTNER COMMAND COOES 



REPEAT AS NEEOEO 

T? CMP A tt^C JUMPS CAN BE USED TO GET TO THE MONITOR 

JMP START START IS IN MIKBUG 

RTS RETURN TO COMMAND COT*> 

Thii pioooan ii a Hkplc C0NO*NATr0N or two povtihci ■ ■ 

a POSITION 4N0IPCM0CN1 HONlTOS SUPPLCNCHT I USC BlCAUSC TNC 
ROUTINCS A*C POSITION INOOCMOCNT, I WAI ASIC TO COMSINC THCM ST 
}IKIIT FVfTlMO QNC ArTCi TNC OTXCI. TnC ONli- CNANBC OCSUIiCO 
WAS IN TNC OlI'lACtMCNT TO TNC POQM«TS> TniS 01 ■ • i. A C CmCKT WAS 
SASCO ON A IMOWN AOOMCSS IN TNC COMhaMO lOOP Or TMC SUfPlCWtMT. 
I CNANICO IT TO A INOWN POIITlOH tN TNC fltST O0UT(NC. Im TNC 

nohitoo su»si,chcnt, tmC rissT iouthc, RANGE, icti tnc limiti 
uico or a hunsci or otnCS souiincs twCLVOlNS BRANCH. Tmis 



»U«»LCi«CNT l« USCO WITH A RT 68/HX MONMOP. StfT ALL TXt I/O 
AOORCSSfS IN THIS CzAN^iC A « Ml K6U0 CP«P*TI8H. 

ThC MOJIi* OAl SC IOAOC0 USIHO 1K| PUNCH UtTlift SIVCm 
TO WM* AT |3F^ 0«» S» UIIH« TNC COOI OIvCn, TO IUk AWT WNCOC In 

-cmoit, ctCc»T roi t&Q3$ to $003? wmich is usco ros tcmpooaot 

STO«ACC Or VAltASLC!). BlfOPC TOW IUn IT, rOU MUSI LOAO $3^ *"& 
$3^ With ThC AOONCSS OP RA 1 (3^01 tn TnC pUNCN liSTInn). Id tnc 
no** toa lueracxiNiT, XTEMP n io«oco w^tn tnc sasc aOOncbs sv a 
BR5, PUL A, ETC* YOU CAN COnOinC TniS PSOSSAN WITm THC SASC 
Dt-Mlli riKOiMQ AUVtiwt Oi»tN IlSllEt* JUST ■tHCNffR HJ CMfMSI 
TKf 01 SPI.ACCHCHT roA TmC FH0NPTS TO NATCN THf NCW SASC AOOICIS. 

FILM? U 



6621 SAT 

9935 

2*03 
7C#*3* 
9735 A** 
0E3M 

BOE07E 

cr3h 

BDE0m7 
cr32 

0E3N 

BOC07D 
BDE0m7 
Or 30 

^2 
Vr 

1.0 

ft 

# 

tar 

9631 BR1 

9Z33 

9735 
963^ 
9232 

973« 



clc start or SUBROUTINE 

LOA A #421 »0AO OlSPLACtMtNT TO *FR0>4* 

AOC a XTEMP* 1 AOO IT TO flASC AOMtSS 

QCC RA2 CHECK TOR CARRY 

INC XTEMP INCREMENT H I OH ORO^R BYTE 

STA A XTEMP+1 save cow oroer byte 

LOX XTEMP 1 OAO FROM AOORESS INTO X 

.(SR POATA 1 PUT OUT FROM 

STX XTEMP SAVE AOORESS OF TO 

JSR BAOOR GET FIRST ADDRESS 

STX EADO SAVE it 

I DX XTEMP POINT TO TO 

JSR P0ATA2+S «UT IT OUT 

,iSR BADDR GET SCCONO AOORESS 

STX «ADO SAVE It 

FC8 'F,«R,»0.*M.U 



•T'O.m 



LOA 


A 


BADO+1 


TWO BYTE SUBTRACTION 


SBC 


A 


EAOD+1 


US4NQ THE AOOR ESSES 


STA 


A 


XTEMP* 1 


JUST ENTERED 


LOA 


A 


BAOD 




SBC 


A 


EAOO 


TME RESULT IS STORED IN 


STA 


A 


XTEMP 


XTEMP 


IOA 


A 


0* 


LOAO A WITH A SPACE 


.JSR 




OUTEEE 


PUT IT OUT 


LOX 




#XT£>» 


POINT TO XT£>* 


>«* 




CVT^MS 


PUT OIT ITS CONTENTS 


CLR 


A 




CLEAR COMMAND CODE 


RTS 






RETURN TO CALLING PAOGftAM 



80E101 

CE003n 

8OE0C8 

JlF 

^9 



s 1 iC3F0tf«862i 99352^37CM3h9735OC3^BOE07EOF3laDC^7WVC«3^o7A 
s 1 1 E3FiBE^cwc^7cir s^^z^-^k^*^ «^ c 963 T 92339735963fc*7»3*97D3 
s ? 1 3F363*e620BOE 1 DlCC^3toOC0t8«»F39l»1 
S9 

CURRENT APPLICATIONS AND FUTURE POSSIBILITIES 



Psihion ivoi#inoeht cddc roi TKf 6E^Sf 



10 flOIIAHf WNICN OCALlf NCNiriT f*ON TNC fPCCOON TO IC SUN 

»k»«Min im ncnoot. Two ttpcs or psossans fiT tnii catcsoiv) 



W Micro vtourrml 



-23 



»tos*«N» which *ar 10 oiitrisutco to t.iA«ll runncr or comPutcrs 

WNICm NAT • ( tOdrilMlCO Olf/liCMTlT, AHO FMOtiAMS WM I C M il{ 

PfiiiNCO a« net or * uiuit or »«o«««x» i« ac usto 

IflQtMUDtNTlT OR IN {«h|ll|1i»lt| WITH 0T«C« MOItiHt, 

4 scacsAL »ue»oi< honitob »aosa«w «■ a moo»im ociioncd 

10 SURHlC«CNT AN llllTtXI MONITOR <C« MIKflUOj C0UL.0 NtACH 

a wiota aaour or usees if it coulo sc ivij without »ooir «c«t to», 

WHCOt tH« uaift KAO AVAIlAOLC NC«0R¥ , OlAR 1 00 T J1R.A* »ROQR*K* 

a*c a*otncr aooo ceanpit or thc iCNcnit or PIC. W«r smoulo tou 

HAVC TO AOO ROW IN A Mcciru L0CA1I0N vhc» TOO M«r ALnCaOt Na«C 
AVAlLSfjVC RON IN ANOTHta LOCATION* T*|*C TTPtt Of MM*4hl A*C 

On twc oihc* wans, a lakac, connl tCAico, mo t ran \.i m * nun 

LCVCL LAHlUASC COa»ILtR V0UL0 01 YCNT OirriCVLT TO WN I TC WITH 

PIC a«o ooca not Hail* nain ahtthih* <ro» rcinC eaaitiON 



Lia 



can NAtr conpi icaico tciiHTine oa ouoincss psoqrahhihg much 

flASICN. ThCSC PIOIIiNI CAN AC CAtcCO 11 TO MCHOOY tMO |UN ^Cn 

TNtia Ft/NciiONa arc Ntcoro at * R«iat oa co*t*ol eaootAN. PIC 

ALLOWS HUCH lUMtl INRLCHC* T*T<0H Of llllllr rONCTION* tlKCC 
TNl NOOT1NCS CAN ai RUM (ir INCt HILL Mt) IN WH«TCvC« «(l9lr 
NANMttS TO 01 CU*iC*lLT AVAItSLC. If ALSO ALLOWS LaROCr ROUTIH 



1INRLCS BTtTCNt WHICH 00 NOT HAV< TMC fAll N«»» STO*A«C RCeUIRCO 
TO t«*C AOvARtAOC Or A NUN TIN* L I SA A R » . 

Vmcn t**c ncht oCnCration or CPUs kcomi ncaokt *vArL*SL.c, 
hucw or thc cooc vatftCN roR thch vili at position i nocmmocni . 

ThCV MILL HATC ADORCiSINQ MOOCI SStCtAtlT Dttl«lrCO TO HaKC P tC 

caot fo cooc ano r*»T 10 suh, Bui, a* I saio ai thc rcoimjmo or 

THtS ANTlCLC, It fOU NAT* A 6&&0 |T|T(h TOU OON«T NAVC TO WAJY 

torn THOtc new CPita* wnt hot crnlonc thi poiiiil r (i or OIC how, 

VI IN YOUN NRCiCNT STITCH. 



M. BOYD 

ST. WRY OF THE PLAINS 

DOOGE CITY, KS 67801 



WDRSRX 

Terry A. Mayhugh KMMS* 
11632 Mldhurst Dr, 
Concord, TH 37922 

HORCflX la ■ roree Coda receiving progroa for tha SWTP 
6600 aioro computer. In addition to tha computer the only 
haxdaara required to demonstrate tha progrea) la ■ t«-lat:r«ph 
t*j and aa audio oaolX>at«r. Slnco tho docodlne il^orlthao 
ajo laplca«ot«d in eoftwara «oa« rathar «l«bomta fa*tura* 
ara aaaSlj inoludad, fHo pro^raa la aolf^adapting to coda 
•paaO varlatioaa ml lowing aolld cop/ ovar a wida raneo of 
tpoada without opas^mtor adjuotaont, faranthaala parity, 
bmokapace cm arror «tiaractar< ard aldatona aonitor control 
aro aotoa of t^a foaturaa of thlf aoftuara con troll «d 
daoDdor. MOlcCRX la 010 'ad at location 90900 and elnca It la 
la«a ttean 1 kllobyta long It will imtiXy fit In a aljjlanllj 
coaflgorad ayatan. An optional lntarfaca la d«corlb«d 
vtloa aoaolaa the uaer to lntarfaca any !7<tL rocalvar to tha 
eoaiputar ao that ooda can b« takan directly off the air. In 
thia »cdo of operation a aoftvare filtering routine effectively 
filter* out otatlo aod other atHDipherle uoiaa to prevent 
erratla copy* 



Software Deaorlptlon 

Although a elapllfled flov dlaeraa of ^ORf:M eppenro in 
figure 1 ajany of lta oallent foaturos are pointed out In the 
coaaente a o company lng the aeaenbled lieting, Wl>«« executed, 
the prograa oonflgvrea the I/O and then vaita for the ep«ce 
bar to be depreeaed before continuing. Then when key-devn la 
aanaad the computer turaa on the aldetone oaclllator *nd eeacurta 
the aaount of time that the key la down. Vhen key-up le eenred 
the aldetone le turaad off, and the computer then decideo 
whether the pleaent Ju&t cent vaa a oolae spike* a dot, or a 
dash. In order to aake this decision MORCRX keeps a rvnnlng 
tiaa average of a daeh length and updates this avtrage with a 
li3 weight everytlae a dash Is decoded. Tho prograa con- 
aldera say decoded puJLee ehorter thRji l/l6 of an average di»eh 
length to be oolee and Ignores it. This feature of KOft&RX 
Is very affective la ainimltlng opurlouo outputs due to 
atatoepherlo uolss. A. detected pujae longer than 1/2 the 
average dash length la labeled a dash while pulaa widths 
between these two Halts are counted aa dota. Key-up ties la 
•aa*urad next. Whao key-down occun again the ccaputer 
decldae whether a word or a character haa just been coapleted 
or whethor It is In tho aiddle of a 'character. Fow the 
average dash length ie compared with the key-up tine in order 
to aake thio doc ie ton. The appropriate output actions are 
then taken aa lad looted in the flow chart. If tha incoming 
coda la too aloa ao that the internally initial Ued timer 
overflow* then KOnTJX wjll output the "> " ch*r*cter. The 
byte at location* ^Wfj should be ir»c rioted to *. rllchtly 
grentor value using the cos^utor r/»ti?n monitor 11 this is 
t roubles ome. \*. present the program will handle an irltlal 
ap*#d ranee froa about 5 **P>' to About 30 *P>\ Svorytlae on 
el^icnt (dot or dash) la decoded ths pro£™* clocks the 
length of the character it le pri9ently «crk)nc on. K "It* 
is output If the cb^r*cter ir illegal b^cauce of lta leneth 
or If It Juet cannot be found In tho prograa look-up table. 
If tho Torse error character {B dota) la tent, the computer 
will backapace to correct the last sent character, ^ince 
in ?'crae tha left and right parentherla Chetnctera are 
repreaented by the sate eleaenta, the procraa keeps trick 
of the nuaber of parenthesla sent and output* then In natonlng 
pair*. Vleo» when the ond-of-a^etHg* character <..»^, - ) la 
oent the computer outputs a r-irrlage return^ llne # feed 
aequence nnd then vnite for additional text. Tha prograa 
has no latch up modea< whenever It becoates the lcaet bit 
confuted due to a poor fist at tbs othsr end or a high level 
atatlc crash, It tries very hard to decode the preeent 
character And then restarts to accept the r\oxt C+At*<,\i.f. 

Hard wart Description 

The input to the recelver/coa^utnr interface can be 
connected directly eoroea the speaker tOTalnale of any S^L 
receiver. K voltage divider conelatlng of Rl and the channel 
refclstince of 91 la ths variable gain network controlled by 
the \CC loop. Both halves of 1C1 ^Jid their nceoclntod p^srlva 
conponents c cabin e to for* a narrow bandpass filter oentor*d 
at lKHa. Thle filtered output Is fullveve rectified and 
asjplifled by 1C2 which transferee ths lKBs AC to ?XRa for 
■ore efficient envelope detection. The rectified output la 
applied to the 40C error amplifier {\/2 IC3). Since 



_er Micro Journal 



affective UK aotlon Is ncceeeary for proper operation of ■ 
non- saturating ton* decoder, the deelgn paranetera of thle 
loop were determined after conoid era ble study of the effects 
of etaospherlo and adjacent channel interference on the 
operation of f.ORiKX. k fast Attack tlse (lOO aeec tiae conatant) 
II aat by R29-C8 vfclla tha decay tine eooetant aat by H17-C8 
la lengthened to 22 afca by diode Pj. Tha high gain of tha 
IOC arror amplifier provides tha required icop ^ain for 
precleloD tOC control and tha reference current thrash Ri5 
deteralnee tha level of tha etablllaed output. kBC action La 
effective o»er a 40 do dynamic mnga and tha circuit la 
daalenad to aparato over an Input range fro* .1 to 10 volte 
peak. Tha full wave rectified output of IC2 is aleo filtered 
by hl3-C10 and la applied to U • other *%\f of IC3 vfich la 
connected aa a comparator Kith 500 u>V of hjateratla. Tha 1.^ 
aaeo tlaa oonalant of thia filter efficiently filters the 
2Kfle AC component leaving only tha envelope of the keyed CV 
waveform. Tha coaparator equaree up the detected pmlee* and 
thay era routed through QJ to the computer. The eettlng of 
JU9 determines the detection threehold and thia ahould 
iwrtuli/ need edjuetasnt only once under actual operating 
ceodltlcne. Blnce ley-down correr?ondr to a low et the 
collector of 03* a telegraph key can be connected froa thle 
point to ground for program tatting or annuel operation. 
Trar.elator 02 flaehea an led when a CM pulee lr detected erd 
operataa independently of the computer or K0R2RX. Tha tone 
and volume rettinfie of the t ldctooe oeoillator aey be 
adjusted aa darlred by 826 and R28. The orcillator ltrolf 
la ke/ed on and off by tha computer while operating under 
KOHIR*. Since thle keyed audio la indicative of whet the 
computer la actually decoding* tha SVL receiver nay be fine 
tuned while listening to thia aonltor. The low power supply 
currents required allow the t 12 volt and the +5 volt power 
to be taken directly froa the liwTP *F00 coaputor. 

Projeot Checkout 

The progrea rauet be typed Into the ooaputer froa a key- 
board starting at aeaory location W900. Of couree, tha 
prograa ehould be lnaedlately saved to tape or dlak before 
prcoeding. Tha k aide of the tVTP KPLA (or V?t) parallel 
Interface card ehould be Jump or ten figured for cooputor output, 
and tha 3 aide ehould ba Juapercd for computer input, Thle 
card should be placed in riot 02. The 13B of the a aide 
ahould be connected to diode D6 of the Interface nj-d the ltt& 
of the B elde ahould ba eenneoted to the collector of 03. * 
telegraph key ahould alao be connected fro* tha Q3 colloctor 
to ground. If tha reoelver Interface la not constructed, a 
key can juet be conneoted to the 1*98 of the 8 aids of the 
parallel card. A. Junp to location 19910 ahould be performed 
uelng tha uyetem monitor. The banner •B0K3SX RKtOT. . .PR2LS 
L»ACJ PAB TO P80II R-VCtlVirC" should appear, frets the cpace 
>ivr end > ufln( the telegraph key, tend oo£e into the computer! 
and ths text xlll te displayed on tha terminal. To terminate 
bCft&RX, the computer raaet fust be pressed. $ubMO,uently 
typing (under £1X800. 8YT3UQ, sto.) will reetsrt ths prograa. 
To check out the receiver interface connect an 8wT receiver 
to the input of tha interface and type to bring up KORBRX. 
tuna in a Moderately etroni CV elation, and adjust tha 
receiver tunlnf until the lad flaahee In synch with tha keyed 
lKHe tonea froa tha receiver speaker. If the led doee not 

'«' Micro Journal 



flaeh, tha detection threshold should bs lowered by ad gating 
K19- If adjusted too low, the led will remain on ccntinuoualy. 
Once thin coarse adjustment le aafle, press the epsce bar and 
adjust ths tone and voluae levels on the sldetone monitor to 
comfortable levels. The receiver should now ba fine tuned 
for the best rscsptlon an heard through the K0RSA7. eldotooe 
aonltor. Ri9 ahould now be flnelly adjusted for beat copy 
while listening to ths aonltor and should not require further 
edjuettsnt. Reset the computer and restart W0R3RX to begin 
receiving cods. Copy will not be letter perfect with do eel 
ctatLona due to stetlo crsshss and hi£h level adjacent channel 
interference, alao, alnce eoae flata are colored vieh pergonal 
dlaleote, alaplaced epacea and erroi ecu* chartctere u;i ^ 
appear. 

P*rta List PORfRX MW£t 



81, R15 5.1k 10* carbon 

8?, R5 12. Ik 1* aetal film 

83* R6 316 oha 1* aetal file 

R4, R? 121k \+ aetal fila 

R0 4?0 ohm \Qft carbon 

R9,R10 I R11 I R12 I 813, 10k 1* aetal fila 

*J4» Ria, R24, 827 Ik 101C carbon 

R16 4T0a 10* carbon 

RT7 4.7 Keg 10?£ carbon 

R19 10k pot 

820 47k 10* carbon 

R21, R23 10k 10* carbon 

R22 270 oba 10* carbon 

HT^Zk 10* carbon 

R2fi 50k pot 

R2fl 10k pot 



[STAffT 




01-06 iri9l4 or equivalent 

D7-led 

QX 2K4858 MeS,«« jft* 

Q2-Q4 2K2222 

1C1-1C3 Ooal 741 op «if 

1C4 555 tlaor 

GP1 ainlature fi-50 oha epeaker 

alac. telegraph key, anclocure 

C1,C2 I C3,C4 I C5,C6 ,027uf 5* aylar 

C7 luf non-polarlf od 

Cft 47uroolld tantalua 

C9 47«r electrolytlo 

CIO .19urnyl v 

CU .22uraylar 

CI 2 22ul* electrolytic 

~ e.,.. 



Pfanffai it»f-i 




9-irrvT 
ftwafi*. cH^acfa** 




M*W&- Cn*A<tIf 




-"^"1 I 



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I 







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[MaiiTUi JTd-1 



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-25 



BBI H CNOMIC ASS€H8LJIR PAGE 1 



ot»p ?/ ?:• 



1 1 4 I K0 

Its: PS* OflOETT 



It 
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41 
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71 



X.,,A MORSE C DE RE E1VIM0 PROGRAM FOR THE 4900 HICRO * 
TCAftY L. MAVHUOH CM 



A048 
A042 



0006 
0900 
090O 

oboi 

0903 
0904 
0905 

0907 03 

0908 EC 
09 

090A 10 
090> 14 OP 
090H 00 OQ 
090T 04 



91 PtAIAD €0U 
101 PJAIAC f Qu 
tit PIAIBD COO 
121 PIA1PC EMI 
131 PRO0CO EDO 
141 STAC* CPU 
XSI OUYECE COU 
161 PPATAl COU 
171 1NCCC EOO 
Hit lAKBFC coo 
191 f*0 

Ot UPTIME ftHB 
211 PUMTtH ftMP 
271 CHARE (J kntt 
731 LENOrH R»» 
741 DBHTIH 8MB 

?5i uncos fcb 

24* tiHjNn rci 

27* PPAR RMB 

20 r HONBTR PCS 



ABSUNE8 PIA AT PORT 2 IM 8VTP MOO 
<HO0IFY PORT NUMBS* At ACQUIRED) 



•AMI 

mn 

t£07C 
•C1AC 

loe 

•0900 

1 

2 

I 
I 

2 

fM 

l 

•!0r«16T«0PitOO.«OO«t04 



KFY-UP TIME OF PRESENT E CKEWT 
KET-OQUN TIME OT PRESENT ELEMENT 
FAE8F.MT CHARACTER UHlLE BEING llULT 
LENGTH OF PRESENT CHARACTER 
RUNNlNQ TIME AVQ OF A DASH 
MAJOR T I HI NO LOOP CONSTANT 
NINQR TININO LOOP CONSTANT 
PARITY RC016TCR FOR PARENTHESIS 



0910 CE 0910 301 START LOX »SYART 
0913 fr A046 311 HTX PRQOCQ 

0916 BE A042 321 LOB 4STACK 



341 « STRUCTURE • 610* OF PIA FOR L.SR INPUT 



0919 


84 


FC 


341 




LDA 


A 


4X111111X0 


0911 


87 


BOOA 


371 




81 A A 


PIA1BD 


091 E 


B4 


01 


38 r 




ir-A 


A 


4XOOOOOO01 


0920 


P7 


6008 


391 




BTA 


A 


PfASM 


0923 


B4 


04 


401 




LDA 


4 


4X0O00O100 


0925 


8? 


BOOB 


411 




BTA 


A 


P1AIBC 


092B 


87 


B009 


421 




BTA 


A 


PIAIAC 








441 


• INITIALIZE DATA RE01 


092P 


BD 


OAOF 


44 1 




JB* 




TONOFF 


09X 


04 


19 


471 




LM 


A 


4939 


09J0 


87 


0903 


48! 




BTA 


A 


DBKTIN 


0933 


80 


0AQ2 


49t 




J8R 




atR* 


0*34 


d 


0C4C 


30* 




LUX 




9BAMNCR 


09JT 


HI 


COTE 


311 




J8R 




PDATAI 


093C 


80 


CtAC 


321 


RCBTRT 


JBR 




IMCCE 


09 3F 


7F 


0909 


331 




CLR 




PPAR 


0942 


Bll 


OAOf 


341 


NUCHA* 


JBR 




TQMUT9- 


0943 


7F 


0900 


331 




ClR 




UFTIMC 


0T4B 


7F 


0901 


34t 




CVR 




DWNTIN 


0948 


7F 


0903 


371 




CLR 




CHARCO 


094E 


7F 


0904 


381 




CLR 




LCWOTK- 


0951 


K> 


0AL3 


39* 


NAZI 


JBR 




QOOETT 


0954 


24 


Fp 


401 




PNC 




mait 








421 


t NET IB 


DO UNI 


0956 


80 


0A09 


64 1 


BTILDH 


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TONON 


0959 


80 


0902 


«3l 




jdft 




flMCR 


C95C 


7C 


0901 


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INC 




PMNTIN 


C9SF 


■ 4 


0901 


671 




LDA 


A 


MINTIN 


0962 


;-a 


07 


46 1 




BNt 




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OVM 


84 


3E 


691 


REDUCE 


LPA 


A 


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CV66 


■ 


0C4A 


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JBR 




OUTPUT 


0949 


20 


I>7 


'II 




BRA 




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Q94B 


80 


0AI5 


7 1 


CUNT I 


JBR 




OOOETT 


C94C 


27 


C4 


m 




BEO 




BTILDN 








fZl 


• KEY IS 


UP* 


0970 


BO 


OAOF 


77r 




JSR 




TONOFF 


0973 


F4 


0905 


78 * 


FILTER 


LPA 


I 


D8HIIP1 


0976 


54 




7V* 




Lift 


I* 




0977 


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B 1 




LBR 


H 




09 70 


§4 




4J3 




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i 




0979 


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m 




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* 




97A 


Fl 


0901 


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¥ 


DWNTIH 


0970 


22 


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141 




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HUCHAft 


097F 


N 


0903 


831 




LDA 


¥ 


DBMriH 


09B2 


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Ml 




ton 


B 




09B3 


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871 




CNF 


B 


OWMTIH 


0984 


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6Ht 




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I MOOT 


09HS 


bo 


0A1B 


eve 




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UFDA C 


0981 


n[. 




901 


INDA8H 


BEC 






090C 


79 


0904 


911 




ROL 




D4ARC0 


09BF 


00 




9=1 




see 






0990 


NJ 


0944 


| || 




ROL 




LENGTH 


099J 


H 


0904 


•**: 




LOA 


B 


LENGTH 


09«« 


C4 


40 


931 




AMD 


B 


««01000000 


099* 


BJ 


IB 


9AI 




BCQ 




BflLUP 


0*9A 


»[ 


0*83 


9/1 




JBR 




raOLNO 


0*90 


7F 


09*2 


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JMP 




NUCHAR 


D9*0 


oc 




99* 


IN DOT 


etc 






09AI 


79 


09O3 


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NOi 




CHARED 


09A4 


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101* 




B8C 






09A3 


79 


09O4 


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LCNOTH 


AB 


F4 


0904 


103* 




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09AB 


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BflLUP 


09AF 


BD 


0A7* 


1041 




JBR 




ERROR 


09*2 


7C 


0942 


1071 




JMP 




NUCHAR 



INITIALIZE FOR AFFROX 13 UTM 



BOOIN ReCClVC UHCN AMY RET 18 PRCB8C0 



yAIT FOR KZtOOttt* 



BEGIN TININO TXE OOWM-TIKE 



WARNIMd THAT RX BPCED 18 BCT TOO FABT 
TINE 08 SHOULD 8C IMCRCTiCMTCO 



COMT UNTIL KCT IS UP 



FILTER OUT STATIC CRASHES 



NOW HAVE DSHTlM/lft 

CLtMCNT TOO SHORT . . . BTART OUCR 

CMP AVO DASH L TH/2 PITH f<CY OPM TINE 

HAS IT A DASH OR A DOTT 

IT MAS A DOT— ADD IT TO P*AR£0 

IT NAB A OASM— UPDATE RX BFCCD 



CHARACTER IS LSOAi.. . .COMT. 
OiARACTBR 18 fLLC UAL ... BTART OVER 



80 FAR CHARACTER IS LEO*. 
THIS ONE MAY NOT BE—CHECK IT 




4 =r f 



5 -JL 

+ n*i >-, 




109* 4 KEY IB 8TILL UPl 



83 60 IB 1111 9TILUP B8R TIMER 

09B7 7C 0900 1121 INC UFT1ME 

C9BA 96 00 1131 LDA A UPTIME 



FINALLY BTART NCABUftlNO KCT-UF TIME 



J66' Micro Journal 



2141 PNC BTILUP 

lift ■ KEY It DOM* AGAIN! 



09C3 tO 9*0* 
09C4 FA 0909 
0?C9 OC 
OtCA 9t 
09« Fl 090O 
09CE 22 II 
09DO 20 OF 
09 D 2 1* ©907 
09D3 F4 WOO 



Otftf 
090* 
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0»fl 

09ta 

09f3 
09E1 

0*EI 

09EF 

o*fs 

09*4 
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09F9 



0*11 
0*14 

0*15 
0*18 
0*1 A 
Mil 
0*1 E 
MI] 

0*3) 
0*23 



2* 01 
39 
9* 

27 Ft 
20 Ft 
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a* so 

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7C 0*42 
F* 0903 

Fl 0*00 

22 03 

■0 49 

71 0**3 

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7F ©9©Q 

71 

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10 EC7E 

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39 

04 01 

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39 

•4 000* 

■4 01 

39 

?F 0*0* 

7F 0*03 



70 0903 
7* 0*6* 



0*21 II 0*03 
Ff 0*0* 
•1 0*01 

*9 0*03 
3* 



0*11 
0*34 
0*37 



0*21 17 
0A3E 29 



0*3F 
0*j*3 
0*** 



0A4C 

0*30 
0*32 
0*3* 



0*30 
OASF 
0*42 
0**4 
0**4 
0*4* 
0*42 
0*40 
044F 
0*71 
0*74 
0*77 
0*7* 
0*71 
0*7 1 
0*00 
0**3 



* 
OAM 
OA*F 
0*91 
0**3 
0**4 

o*n 

0*91 
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0**7 
0AA9 



• 1 01 
24 03 
20 43 

■ 1 03 
34 03 
20 4D 
01 07 
34 02 
20 4* 
tl OF 
24 01 
71 0103 

■ 1 IF 
24 03 
7E OI7t 
II 3F 
34 03 

7£ OlfD 
tl 7F 
37 It 
tl FF 
tl 03 
71 094 3 
14 0*03 
II 00 
24 0* 
14 01 
10 EiDl 
14 01 
71 0C4* 
t4 3A 
71 0C4* 



04 09 3 

■ 1 00 
24 09 
•4 49 

n OC** 

84 34 
7t 0C#* 

14 0*03 
II 00 
24 03 
34 47 
7E 0C4A 

■ 1 02 
24 OS 
14 4E 
71 0C4A 
tl 01 
34 03 
M 41 
7C OCA* 
•4 4D 
7C OCA* 
94 0*03 



■20r 

1211 
1231 
1231 
1241 
123! 
1241 
1271 
I2tl 
1291 
1501 
1311 
1321 
S33» 
1341 
1391 
1341 
1371 
13tl 
1391 
1401 
1411 

i4i: 

1431 
1441 
149Z 
1441 
1471 
Mil 
1491 

i3or 

1311 
1331 
133! 
194t 
133) 
1341 
1371 
iStl 
1391 
1401 
1411 
1421 
1431 
1441 
1431 
1441 
1471 
1411 
149« 
1701 
1711 
1721 
17J1 
1741 
1731 
1741 
17 I 
1711 
1791 
1101 
till 

1121 
1931 
It 4 1 
1331 
1341 
1171 
IMF 
It*! 
1701 
1»1! 
1*3 1 
1*31 
1941 

1*31 

1941 
1971 
1931 
1991 
2001 
2011 
302I 
3031 
3041 
Z03 1 
3041 
2071 
2011 
2091 



2131 
2141 
2131 
2141 

2171 

2ie: 
21*1 
2201 
2211 
2221 
2231 
2241 
2231 
2241 
3271 
2211 
229 r 
2902 
231 r 
2321 
2331 
2341 
2391 



TIMER 

l Fours 



EMritD »3R 



JOT YONON 
LI* t MHflh 

eve 
tot t 

CMP 1 or TIME 

SHI EffOCHk 

>** EHOUftb 

LOA A TIHEOB 

LO* 9 TIMING 

SEC A 

INT LP1K9 

ill 

tfC t 

•CD LPOtfTB 

in* lp 1*3 

QUTCH* 
LO* * #430 
JSA QUTfctE 
JMP NUCHAR 
LDA t D8hT*A 
LM 1 

CNp 3 UPTIME 
•MI NI0O4A 
••* DUTCH* 



IS CDASM LEN TH>X2 > «CV UP-TINET 
IF TED TMEN UOAD WOT £W0€D 



MIDCnR 
CLE** 
TOWOM 
TOHOFF 

COKTT 

UPDATE 



O-R 0MM7IM 

CLt UPTIME 

JUP ST I LEW 

L3K 4N0NSTR 

JlR PDATA1 

ATI 

LEA 4 1*00 

IT* 4 P1A1AD 

ITS 

Ll>* A 1401 

IT* A Pl*t*4> 

ATI 

LOA A P141M 

AND A #»- 1 

rts 

OSHTINtl 
DENTIN*! 



A WORD IS COMPLETED 



SET UP FOA m*1 CM*FAC»Eft 
IS CHARACTER 11 COHPLC fET 

II 1D49M IEM0TH1/2 > KFT UP-TIME* 
IF YEt 1KEN CHARACTER NO? CunPXETm 
CHARACTER 16 COMPLETED 

STILL IN MIDDLE OF PRf 1 ChAfc 



TURN ON 8IDET0ME 



TURN OFT SIDETONC 




C4A 
ELR 
CLt S 
LD* * 



<H||1 
1 H<1| t 



tCMR 
ELI 

EL2 

ELS 

EL 4 

as 

EL4 

EL 7 
ELI 



DSMTIM 
HMTIM 
RTJL DSMTIM^l 
ADD A OVHTjH 

ADC I DfHTIH+1 
DD A WAVTIH 

ROC 1 M4VTIM41 

Lit t 

ROR A 

Lift t 

ROR A 

1TA A DtHYXtl 

RTt 

TER JUMP WCCTORI 
LOA A LEMTOl 
CMP A iXOOOOOOOl 
SHE EL2 
IRA FLMENl 

CMP A 4X000 0011 
tME EL3 
Mr A ELHEH2 
CMP A 4X00000111 
INC EL4 
•MR CUMCK3 
CM* A #300001111 
SHE CL3 
JMP ELHEH4 
CMP A 9X00011111 
•AC EL4 
JKP ELMEH3 

cmp a ixoomm 

tME EL7 
JMP FLMEN4 
CMP A 4X01111111 
■CO T00LN0 
CMP A 4X11111111 



~ftr~\ 



A-> 3 X DtMTfn ILSII 

t-> 3 X DHHI1M r*||) 

A-> 3 V DSMTIM ♦ OWPJTIM CLlD> 

•-> 3 X OSHTIM ♦ DWNTIM <MSBl 



DIVIDE 9Y 4 TO OCT 311 WEIGHTED AVO 
PUT NEW UPDATED 9YTE SACK 




JMP UUEHAA 

LDA A CHAREO 

CMP A 4KO00OO000 

■Ml TQOLHO 

LDA * «|*HlPC 

JM OUTEEE 

LDA A 4B*K9Pi: 

jnp output 

LNO LDA A ♦'• 

JMP OUTPUT 

CHARACTEB LOOK-UP TAILS 



CLMCNl LDA 
LLTRC CMP 



LDA 

JMP 
LLTRT LDA 



ELMEN2 LDA 
LLTRI CNF 



LLTRM CMP 
SMC 
LDA 
JMP 

LLTRA CMP 
SAC 
LDA 
JMP 

LLTRM LDA 
JMP 

ELMEN3 LDA 



A CMARCG 

A 4100000000 

LLTRT 
A * • 

OUTPUT 
* 4'T 

C4JTPUT 
A CHAREO 
A 4X00000000 

LLTRM 
A A'l 

OUTPUT 
A 4X00000010 

LLTRA 
A O'N 

OUTFIT _ 
A IXOOOOOOOl 

LLTRM 
A 4'A 

OUTPUT 
A #'H 

OUTPUT 
A CHAAEO 



0*G1 fll 


M 


3341 


LLTR3 


CMP 


A 


4X0000 000 


0AG3 2* 


OB 


2371 




NE 




LLTRJ 


0*C3 04 


31 


2311 




LDA 


A 


4*9 


0*C7 rt 


0C4A 


2391 




JMP 




OUTPUT 


OACA 31 


01 


2401 


LLIRU 


CMP 


A 


4X0OO0OO6 2 


OACC 24 


33 


2411 




SMC 




1XTRH 


0*CE 34 


33 


2421 




LDA 


* 


4'U 


OADO 7E 


0C4A 


2431 




JMP 




OUTPUT 


0AD3 31 


03 


3441 


LLTRV 


CMP 


A 


9X00000011 


0*03 24 


or. 


2431 




•NE 




LLTRA 


0*07 04 


37 


2441 




LDA 


* 


9'tl 


0*09 7E 


0C4* 


2471 




JMP 




OUTPUT 


0*OC 31 


02 


2411 


LLTRR 


CMP 


A 


#300000010 


0*DE 24 


c^ 


34 91 




BMC 




LLTRO 


0A4T0 04 


32 


23*0! 




LDA 


A 


4'R 


0AC2 7E 


0C4A 


2311 




JMP 




OUTPUT 


0*£3 tl 


04 


2331 


LLTRO 


CMP 


A 


4X00OOOI1O 


0AC7 24 


09 


2331 




B*AI 




LLTRD 


OAC9 04 


47 


2341 




LDA 


A 


4-0 


OAEt 71 


0C4A 


233* 




JMP 




OUTPUT 


OAEt tl 


04 


2341 


LLTRD 


CMP 


A 


• X0O00O100 


OAFO 24 


o-, 


3371 




ONE 




LLTRO 


04F2 S4 


44 


2311 




LDA 


A 


#'0 


04F4 ft 


OC4* 


23*1 




JMP 




OUTPUT 


0AF7 tl 


07 


240 t 


LLTRO 


CMP 


A 


4X00000111 


0AF9 24 


C^ 


3411 




SMC 




LLTRK 


OAFS 34 


4F 


3431 




LDA 


A 


■ '0 


OAFD 7E 


0C4A 


2431 




JMP 




OUTPUT 


0100 04 


4| 


34*1 


LLTRR 


LDA 


A 


4'R 


0102 7E 


0C4* 


2431 




JMP 




OUTPUT 


0IO3 B4 


0903 


2*41 


CLMCN4 


LDA 


A 


CHAREO 


0101 31 


OS 


3471 


LLTRS 


CP4* 


A 


4X00001000 


OIOA 24 


M 


2411 




•AC 




LLTRC 


OIOC 64 


42 


2491 




LD* 


* 


!'■ 


OIOE 7C 


0C4* 


3701 




JMP 




OUTPUT 


Otll 31 


0* 


3711 


LLTRC 


CMP 


A 


4X00001010 


0113 24 


or. 


3731 




9WF 




LLTR* 


0*13 B4 


43 


3731 




LDA 


A 


4*C 


0*17 7E 


= 4* 


3741 




JMF 




OUTPUT 


0*1 A SI 


02 


2731 


U.TMF 


CMP 


A 


4X00000010 


0*1C 24 


N 


2741 




tME 




LLTRM 


0B1E 34 


44 


2771 




LOA 


A 


4'F 


0*20 7E 


0C4A 


2711 




JMP 




OUTPUT 


0123 81 


00 


3791 


LLTRM 


CMP 


A 


4*000 000 00 


0*33 24 


03 


2101 




INC 




LLTRJ 


0127 S4 


40 


2111 




LD* 


A 


4'H 


0*29 7E 


0C4* 


3131 




JMP 




OUTPUT 


0*2C 11 


07 


3121 


LLTRJ 


CMP 


A 


4X000 001 11 


0*2E 24 


03 


3141 




SNE 




LLTRL 


0130 34 


4A 


3331 




LDA 


* 


4'J 


0*32 7E 


0C4A 


2841 




JMP 




OUTPUT 


0*33 11 


04 


2171 


LLTRL 


CMP 


A 


•XOOOOOIOO 


0*37 24 


0*. 


2tti 




StAT 




LCTA* 


0*39 14 


4C 


31*1 




LDA 


A 


4'L 



_27 



WE HAVE A 6809 FOR YOU 



POWER SUPPLY 

Modular plug-in construction with computer grade 
filters and a 25 AMP rectifier bridge. Blower 
fan is standard equipment. All con- 
nections to the power line 
are beneath the 
safety shield. 



INTERFACE 



Convenient serial or parallel J/0 cards have DB-25 
connectors mounted directly on the circuit 
board. Up to 16 interface devices may 
be installed on the address decoded 
I/O bus. Programming strips are 
provided for input and out' 
put baud rate selection 
on each port. All 
outputs are 
fully buf- 
fered. 




CABINET 



PROCESSOR 



Rugged 1/8 inch alloy aluminum 
base plate combined with a solid 1/8 
inch alloy aluminum cover for unsurpassed 
protection. All interior metal is conversion 
coated. The cover is finished with a super tough tex- 
tured epoxy. 



The world's most powerful 

eight-bit processor, the Motorola 

MC6809, plus 2Kbyte monitor ROM 

that is2716EPROM compatible and full 

buffering on all output lines, Built-in multiuser capability, just add I/O cards to operate a multi-terminal system 



MEMORY— You can purchase the computer with either 8K bytes of RAM memory (expandable to 56K). or with the full 
56K. The efficient, cool running dynamic memory used in this system is designed and manufactured for us by "Motorola 
Memory Systems Inc." 

PERIPHERALS— The wide range of peripheral hardware that is supported by the 6809 includes; dot matrix printers (both 
80 and 132 column), IBM Electronic 50 typewriter, daisy wheel printers, 5-inch floppy disk system, 8-inch floppy disk 
systems and a 16 megabyte hard disk. 

SOFTWARE— The amount of software support available for the 6809 is incredible when you consider that it was first 
introduced in June, 1979. In addition to the FLEX9 operating system, we have a Text Editor, Mnemonic Assembler, Debug, 
Sort-Merge, BASIC, Extended BASIC, Multiuser BASIC, FORTRAN, PASCAL and PILOT. 

69/K Computer Kit with 8K bytes of memory $ 495.00 

69/A Assembled Computer with 8K bytes of memory $ 595.00 

69/56 Assembled Computer with 56K bytes of memory $1,595.00 




SOUTHWEST TECHNICAL PRODUCTS CORPORATION 

219 W. RHAPSODY 

SAN ANTONIO, TEXAS 78216 (512) 344-0241 



6809 DISK SYSTEMS 



All disk systems are supplied with our version of FLEX 9, the world 
standard disk operating system for the 6809. Our systems normally 
operate in double density format, but they are compatible with singte 
density, or single sided recording formats. FLEX is supplied with over 
forty utilities, many of which are only available with our systems* 

Our disk systems offer you mass storage at low cost. The cost per thou* 
sand bytes of storage for our various systems is shown in the chart. 
Other 6809 disk systems have costs up to three times greater for the 
same general type drive. 



0-5 Two double sided, double density, 5" disk drives with a total on 
line capacity of 720,000 bytes of data. Includes cabinet, power supply, 
connecting cable and controller. Controller will operate up to four 
drives. This is an ideal disk system for small stand alone word proces- 
sing systems, or for businesses that do not work with large inventories. 

14x6x 10 -20 It* $1,295.00 



DT-5 Double track density version of the D-5. The DT-5 uses two 96 
track per inch drives to provide an on line capacity of 1,400,000 bytes. 
Includes cabinet, power supply, connecting cable and controller. Con* 
troller will operate up to four drives. This is a disk system with enough 
capacity to include small Inventories of up to 1,000 items, plus the 
usual business package of general ledger payroll, etc. 

14 x 6 x 10 - 20 lbs „ $1,695.00 



DMF-2 Double sided, double density, dual eight-inch disk system with 
an on line capacity of 2,400,000 bytes. Our "top of the line" disk 
system features a DMA type controller for fastest possible data trans- 
fers. This drive was designed for larger businesses and multi user in- 
stallations. The DMF<2 will provide the fast operation necessary for 
systems running multiterminals under the UniFLEX operating system. 
Comptete with a heavy duty 1/8-inch metal cabinet, power supply, 
connecting cable and controller. The controller will operate up to four 
drives. 

17% x 5 x 21% - 53 lbs $2,495.00 

COS-1 This "Winchester" type hard disk provides both large storage 
capacity and high speed operation. TheCDS-1 is the answer for systems 
that must handle large inventories or systems with more than four ter- 
minals. The controller has Its own processor and uses DMA data trans- 
fer. 

CDS-1 - 115 lbs $4,395.00 



TYPE 


CAPACITY 


COST 


D-5 


720,000 bytes 


$130 per/ K 


DT-5 


1,400,000 bytes 


$U6per/K 


DMF*2 


2,400,000 bytes 


$1.04 per/ K 


CDS1 


16,000,000 bytes 


$ ,27per/K 




O 5 or OT-6 




DMF2 




COS-1 




SOUTHWEST TECHNICAL PRODUCTS CORPORATION 

219 W. RHAPSODY 

SAN ANTONIO, TEXAS 78216 (512) 344-0241 



0B3S 7C 


0C4A 


290 : 




JNH 




(1UTPU? 


OBJC 61 


04 


2 11 


tLTRP 


CHP 


A 


4X00000110 


0840 24 


0*5 


2*21 




9«* 




il rpi> 


0142 94 


SO 


2V3I 




tUA 


A 


*r 


00.44 7C 


OC4A 


2*4 1 




jm 




oiirpiir 


0047 91 


OD 


2931 


l»LTW> 


cw 


A 


•X00001101 


0049 24 


0*5 


2941 




*H£ 




LLTKV 


004 B B4 


tji 


2971 




L A 


A 


■ 


0640 ?« 


0C4* 


2vet 




JHV 




outptir 


0430 At 


Dl 


2991 


Lirftu 


c«r 


A 


9*00000001 


0*33 24 


BJ 


3O0I 




M« 




LLTftX 


0034 EtA 


34 


3011 




LOA 


A 


*-st 


nsr.rt 'i 


QVH 


3021 




JHP 




wirpuj 


0B3* ei 


Off 


3011 


LLTftX 


CBP 


A 


•ZOOOOIOOl 


om 2 A 


0-i 


3041 




BNR 




tl Tftt 


OHD e* 


36 


to--: 




Lin 


A 


t'K 


ops* mj 


OCA* 


3041 




J««? 




can put 


0t42 m 


06 


307 » 


LLlftV 


CUP 


A 


4* 00001011 


0044 24 


IV. 


3061 




B#4f 




LLTR* 


ilMA MA 


39 


3091 




1 BA 


A 


B-t 


■'■■ht,\* ?t 


DC 4* 


3101 




JI10 




OUtfUT 


OBAB 01 


DC 


31 II 


LllttT 


CH* 


A 


43(00001100 


0P*0 74 


03 


3121 




BT4T 




OH0H4 


O04F 94 


3* 


11 II 




L04 


| 


• / 


0671 7K 


DC4A 


3141 




J*^ 




uur*>uf 


Of.M il* 


M 


3131 


0HDN4 


1 OA 


A 


4 4 


0B?4 7E 


0C4A 


3141 




J«f 




OUTPUT 


007* 04 


OVDJ 


3171 


ELHEN3 


LOA 


A 


CMARCO 


O07C Bl 


OF 


3161 


»Hvni 


c#* 


A 


B 2OO00 11 M 


0B7I 74 


0'. 


3191 




H#*f 




MNon; 


OBBO D4 


31 


3201 




LOA 


A 


4*1 


OPIL* 1 


<m;a4 


3211 




jm- 




OMVit) 


00*13 Rl 


a? 


3221 


NMJH? 


CNP 


A 


4X00000111 


DM; 24 


o-. 


3231 




BNF 




MNUMJ 


OBBV B4 


32 


324 1 




i»»A 


A 


4'2 


ots* 7t 


or*. 


325* 




J»4V 




oMfPtir 


QBBT Bl 


03 


J24I 


t¥HS*3 


C»^ 


A 


txoooooon 


OBVD 24 


M 


32/1 




VHk 




NNUK4 


QB**2 HA 


J3 


3?B( 




1 IA 


A 


f ♦ J 


0B94 f l 


01:44 


1291 




j«r 




OUTPUT 


OBW BJ 


01 


3301 


NWUW4 


cnf 


A 


4*00000001 


D0?» 24 


§1 


S3U 




N# 




IMMTS 


0»t» B4 


34 


33?r 




IDA 


A 


4-4 


0»*» .'«■ 


0C4A 


3331 




Jf9? 




OUTPUT 


f*MN Ml 


00 


JJ4I 


HHUHS 


CPU* 


A 


♦XOOO 00000 


0»ft? 24 


M 


3131 




*NE 




won* 


O0A4 *4 


an 


3341 




IBM 


A 


• '5 


O0AA 91 


OCA* 


3371 




JhP 




nurpur 


O0A9 Ml 


ID 


3391 


MAIM 


CHP 


A 


tTOOO 10000 


004* 34 


M 


3391 




BMC 




M#«U«7 


O0JAO fl4 


11 


1401 




LtW 


A 


t'4 


ohaf /r 


0C4A 


U 1 1 




>nt' 




Ot) TPU I 


0B*2 Bl 


IB 


M21 


MWUN7 


c«r 


A 


4XO00 1 1 OOO 


H'* ?* 


O'. 


3431 




B«i' 




NMUMB 


0004 fl4 


3/ 


3441 




1 rwt 


A 


4'/ 


OB0H /I 


DC4A 


343: 




JMI 




otfiPtri 


OBOfc HI 


IC 


34<V1 


kuune 


rM*» 


A 


4X000U 100 


OBBfj 24 


a: 


5*4/1 




>Kt 




NMUM9 


Dfrflf MA 


36 


14 IN 




1 DA 


* 


**IT 


06C1 7f 


0C4A 


3491 




jm* 




OUTP if 


O0C4 Bl 


U 


3301 


NMUM7 


C«l> 


A 


4X000111 10 


OBC* 24 


M 


3311 




B#41 




NMlMO 


OBCfl B4 


3^ 


3321 




L»* 


A 


r-v 


OBCA 'l 


0C4A 


3331 




JH». 




GUI PUT 


01' ft' HI 


If 


134 1 


mumo 


r«p 


A 


txoooiim 


CBCF 24 


Ofr- 


3331 




hwt 




0A3»* 


OBBl B4 


10 


3341 




LOA 


A 


4*0 


0BCJ3 71 


OCA A 


3371 




J»#» 




tXJTVVT 


O0DA Bl 


tl 


1361 


D4VBH 


C«P 


A 


BXOOOlOOOl 


0000 24 


03 


33f 1 




BNC 




F6APA 


DID* 64 


2D 


3401 




LOA 


A 


♦ *- 


>BI ' 71 


0C4A 


3411 




JHP 




OUTPUT 


OBDF Bl 


12 


3421 


FBAftfl 


CAB> 


A 


4X00010010 


O0L: 34 


M 


31 




PMC 




QKH3 


Q5F3 BA 


20 


3441 




LOA 


A 


4'/ 


0BC3 71 


OCA* 


3431 




JHP 




OUTPUT 


0BC6 B4 


2A 


3441 


WOHS 


LM 


A 


t'l 


OBCA ?€ 


DC4A 


471 




jnp» 




OUTPUT 


O0CO 14 


0W>3 


3461 


E1HCM4 


LOA 


A 


CHAMT3 


O0FO 9: 


19 


3491 


PCROO 


C«P 


A 


•XOOO10101 


06P2 34 


o+, 


3701 




•NC 




COMA 


06F4 84 


2E 


37!! 




LOA 


A 


• ', 


0»F* 7C 


OC*A 


372 1 




J«0 




OUTPUT 


cfrf? 61 


33 


3731 


DBJM 


cn0 


A 


9X001 100 11 


OBFt 24 


M 


1741 




0NC 




QUC9T 


00*0 64 


2£ 


J73 1 




LOA 


A 


♦ *f 


O0TF 71 


0C44 


3741 
3771 




J«P 




OUTPUT 


0C02 61 


N 


3781 


OUCST 


CUP 


A 


4600001100 


QC04 2A 


03 


37V1 




ONE 




COLN 


0C04 BA 


3F 


3601 




IDA A 


4*7 


OCOB FT 


DC4A 


3611 




JfO» 




OUTPUT 


UCCB 61 


36 


362 r 


COUH 


C«P 


A 


9X001 11000 


OCOO 34 


05 


363f 




BMC 




■CRI 


OCOF 14 


34 


16*] 




LO* 


A 


41 


0CJ1 76 


OC*A 


3631 




J»P 




OUTPUT 


0C14 61 


24 


3641 


BtHI 


C«P 


A 


4X00101010 


OCU 74 


03 


3671 




BMC 




PARCM 


OClO 64 


36 


3661 




LOA 


A 


4'» 


OClA 7f 


0C44 


3691 




JMP 




OUTPUT 


■rcii 91 


20 


3901 


MR CM 


cm 


4 


4X00101101 


OClf 24 


14 


3911 




ONI 




tMOHOO 


0C21 7C 


OfO» 


303 1 




IHC 




PPAPt 


0C24 F4 


otot 


303 1 




LOA 1 


PP*6 


0C37 C4 


01 


3941 




*•■:■ 


i 


6*01 


0C3T 34 


09 


3031 




■Ml 




LP** 


0C2B 64 


3f 


3 4t 


RfAH 


LOA 


A 


O'J 


DC 3D 7E 


0C44 


3971 




JHP 




OUTPUT 


DC 3D BA 


26 


3961 


LPAR 


LM 


A 


• '( 


DC32 T l 


DC 46 


3**1 




JMP 




DUTFUt 


CC33 B I 


OS 


4001 


tkumQ 


CBP 


A 


0X09000101 


0CJ7 24 


Or 


4011 




PMC 




oou 


DC J* 64 


01 


4021 




LOA 


A 


•901 


DC31 60 C101 


4031 




JP 




0UTT1C 


OCJC 64 


04 


4041 




LOA 


A 


• BOA 


0C4D BD C1D1 


4031 




J6M 




OUTCCC 


DC43 64 


14 


4041 




LOA 


4 


4414 



0C43 


7t 


0C4A 


4071 




JHP 


OUTPUT 


0C4B |l|4 


2A 


40BI 


QKOHA 


L A A 


4*4 


0C4A 


BD 


EJDt 


4091 


on fpu r 


J8k 


OUTCCC 


0C40 


39 




4101 




RT8 




0C4F. 


*: 




4111 


*4MMER 


FCC 


/noptwi 


0C4F 


4! 


63 










0C31 


*>i 


63 










0C33 


3B 


20 










octirt 


a 2 


43 










BH7 


11 


tl 










OC3* 


n 


M 










Vf M- 


■ 


a 










«M' 


.M 


10 










XSF 


w 


32 










DCAt 


49 


?,,4 










OCA! 


M 


:>o 










OCA! 


31 


iO 










OCA 7 


11 


4i 










OTA* 


•J 


L l 










OCAB 


47 


4] 










Ol-Ati 


T.2 


1-0 










0C4F 


^4 




4121 




FCC 


/TO BC< 


OCJO 


4t 


20 










•C^2 


*2 


4*3 










DC 74 


-1^ 


69 










0C7* 


41 


M 










DC7P 


■*2 


«fl 










DC 7ft 


4a 


43 










DC7C 


4V 


1 i 










OCTt 


1v 


*f 










Ot IVO 


* P 












0C81 


OA 




4191 




FCB 


•OAitOi 


ocn? 


OA 


00 










0C04 


0< 




4141 




KNB 






MO 


EftROftlfll OCTCCTCO 







30 



Hardware Hiccup 
Hangs up MP-A2 EPROM 

Geoffrey A4 Gaaa 
5240 S. V. Dosch Rd. f 
Portland. Oregon 97201 

Owners of SWIPC MP-a\2 6800 CPU f a 
may have Intermittent troubles when 
using one or two 2716 EPROM's with HI- 
PROM selected, as for DISKBUG* or home- 
brew monitors* 

The problem la the Ik pull-down 
realatora R6 and R8 § which come Into 
play when the 4K-8K and 8K switches are 
open. The valuea for R6 and R8 were evi- 
dently aelected when SWTPC thought they 
could get 7415139 chlpa for IC13, and 
never changed when 74S139 9 s were substi- 
tuted. 

A Ik Is sn Inadequate pulldown for 
even standard TTL. much less Schottky 
circuits. Some MP-a\2 boards may — If 
given a cool, serene , snlvetless envi- 
ronment — play quite a while with no 
problema; o there may* turn off the moni- 
tor EPROM at varloua tempers tures • or 
under provocstlon from different data, 
I/O or external Interference conditioner 
A typical clue la failure to respond to 
power-on. requiring s manual reset. 

The sure pointer to the problem Is 
s system which slwsys works with SWTBUG* 
or KLKBUG** activated, but presents in- 
termittent problems when an EPROM moni- 
tor Is switched ln 9 even using s known- 
good monitor chip. 
W Micro Journal 



A "good-engineering-practice" pull- 
down for a Schottky input is 200 ohms. 
However, other chips have trouble pull- 
ing up 200 ohms when the switches are 
closed — so a compromise value of 470 
to 750 ohms may be indicated. 

*TM Southwest Technical Products Corp. 
**TM Motorola, Inc. 

If you're suffering from the prob- 
lem described, try tacking a Ik to 3k 
resistor across each of the pull-downs. 
If this stops the problem, consider the 
preferred solution, which is to change 
IC13 back to its original design type, 
74LS139. (It ±8 no longer necessary to 
pay ridiculous prices or wait a year to 
get one of these chips.) 

Leaving R6 and R8 at Ik will pro- 
vide adequate pull-down and noise margin 
for the low-power chip, and be more com- 
patible with the other chips which must 
drive these bus lines. 

DMAF-l/DMAF-2 Systems 
Using SWTPC 6800 CPU 

Geoffrey A. Gass 
5240 S. U> Dosch Rd. , 
Portland, Oregon 97201 

As many frustrated SWTPC customers 
have learned, that firm has quietly de- 
cided to abandon entirely any further 
support of 6800-based systems, and is 
deleting all 6800-oriented products from 
its line — including the DMAF-1 single- 
density floppy-disk system. 

It is still possible for owners of 
SWTPC 6800 CPU's to add the dual floppy 
disk with DMA — but it's considerably 
more difficult and expensive now. 

SWTPC offers the DMAF-2 double- 
density dual floppy disk system (same 
drives; different controller) for a few 
hundred dollars more than the DMAF-1, 
and the hardware is nominslly 6800-com- 
patible. However, SWTPC ships this only 
with a 6809 FLEX operating system. To 
obtain a 6800/DMAF-2-cotnpatible operat- 
ing system, one must go to the original 
authors of FLEX, Technical Systems Con- 
sultants (consult their ads in this 
journal for the address). The new DOS 
differs from the DMAF-1 version in the 
NEWDISK formatting (now compatible with 
the requirements of the 1791 floppy-disk 

W Micro Jourrml 



controller chip) , and in clearing the 
"double density" bit in the drive-select 
word (the old 6800 hardware is too slow 
to handle the double-density mode of the 
DMAF-2) . 

Some special problems may remain 
for those who hope to interchange disks 
between older DMAF-1 and newer DMAF-2 
systems. The 1791 FDC chip in the DMAF-2 
cannot read disks formatted by the orig- 
inal NEWDISK routine of the DMAF-1 FLEX 
1.0 operating system (though the 1771 in 
the old system has no problem reading 
disks formatted for the 1791!). 

Therefore, all disks used for soft- 
ware or data interchange between DMAF-1 
and DMAF-2 systems must be initialized 
using the DMAF-2 FLEX NEWDISK command. 
This formatter puts $FF's in various 
gaps on the disk (where the old NEWDISK 
put 00 's). Once properly formatted, the 
disk can be written on via either system 
and read via either system — no problem 
once the original formatting is correct. 

Some users may have DISKBUG* or a 
similar PROM already having a disk boot 
in it written for the DMAF-1. This boot 
unfortunately fails to clear the Double- 
Density bit in the DMAF-2 Drive-Select 
Latch, and so is not directly compatible 
with the DMAF-2. However, since the 
DMAF-2 must be locked to single-density 
operation with the 6800, it can be hard- 
wired as follows: 

Cut the line that runs from pin 16 
of IC29, the Drive Select Latch on the 
DMAF-2 controller board, to IC20, IC15 
and IC7, just after the line leaves IC29 
and before it goes through the feed- 
through hole near R55 and D6. Install 
a 10k 1/4W pullup resistor in this feed- 
through hole, picking up the +5V supply 
at the other end of R55. This change 
forces single-density operation, regard- 
leas of the state of the Density bit in 
the Drive Select Latch. 



•■■•tHOMAS ItSTHlXtJITATCQN'S LOM COST S*ST©»*»** 
•Consist* of ora aoctn-- 

•••vidao M* Card", »*5vpor CM Cord «UK HI wenitar**, 
••* slot tsckplfl*. vLttt < slots of gold taftrKton", 
••*odal tOl ftCft ROtftoMd wllh CPU ClbU'*. "*Caa«otea tM.rfoc. 
Card. •♦llOVJIO volt po«r*r topplf. "All cord. or. aoao»blod 
snd tostsd**, ■•All carda hava gold edqa connsctors 

met SS9S.00 

••STfSTW ACCIffOftlft"" 

•L.adas *onltor-«H*n porchssad with tKa lov*coat oyatoa tllf.Oo 
•M-SO ffeoaaa !natru»ant*tlon NAM card, 

oociotod for 24* with UK 1275.00 

"•ACcrisoftY Mtett a»»iy oat* urn* fuuckasw mith mi 

LOM-COiT SYSTEM. THIBI HILL M NO tXCmiQWf. ••• 



1*~f* Sinai. *«■*«, H4. 0W0* 
lOOtJ 00742SO 



•00/MO* COM put E ft* 



.31 



Some software modifications to 
SWTBUG based assembler tools 



A.J. HALL 
Diagnostic Ultrasound Unit, 
Queen Mother's Hospital , Glasgow G3 8SH 
Scotland. 



It is very useful to have a 
hard copy facility when developing 
and modifying programs and this need 
is recognised in the South Western 
Technical Products (SWTP) 6800 
computing system by providing software 
routines to drive a PR40 parallel 
printer via an MP-L Interface 
located at port 7. Typical of software 
expecting this configuration is 
Ed Smith's Software and SWTP software. 
However, because the data transfer is 
parallel and controlled by handshaking 
the code is not suitable for driving 
serial devices such as a teletype. 
While a 110 band teletype is slow 
and noisy these are not major 
disadvantages if It Is used for 
listing only. Additionally they 
are often readily available for use 
because they are being superseded by 
video terminals In the large computer 
installations used in universities etc. 

To use a teletype with the 
software mentioned above it is easiest 
to replace the MP-L Interface with 
an MP-S ACIA Interface and alter the 
printer initialisation and printer output 
routines to suit. If you wish to use a 
port other than port 7, port for example 
It is a simple matter to alter the 
"LDX X'801C to LDX X'8000' M . In 
modifying Ed Smith's Software It was 
necessary to Insert a routine to generate 
a line feed on detecting a carriage 
return but only In the loader character 
output routine - It is not needed 
elsewhere. However If used and there 
is space to get It in, because the 
ACIA output routines are shorter than 
the MP-L ones, It gives a double spaced 
listing which can be useful for editing 
and correcting. 



Ed Smith's Assembler and Loader 

The M68AS assembler and relocating 
linking loader (version 2) is fully 
documented and the availability of a concise 
source code listing makes modification 
simple and straightforward. 

The Loader - this provides the user with a 
print option to list the entry point 
addresses. The printer routines are found 
under the heading "PRINT ENTRY TABLE ON PR40' 
which starts on page 17 of the loader 
listing. 

(A) PORT CONFIGURATION - The code for this 
starts on line 883 ($0755) at the 
label "PRINT IN" and continues up to but 
does not include "LDX PNTMSG". This 
code should be altered to that given 
below. 



0755 CE801C 
0758 C6 03 
075A E7 00 
075C C6 45 
075E E7 00 
0760 01 01 
0762 01 01 
0764 CE 07D8 



LDS#X'801C 
LDABfX'03' 
STAB 0,X 
LDABfX'45 r 
STAB 0,X 
NOP, NOP 
NOP, NOP 
LDX PNTMSG 



(B) SINGLE COLUMN LISTING ~ This is 
obtained by changing the code on 
the two lines following the 
comment "PRINT ADDRESS" on Page 
18 to provide a carriage return 
and branch to the "PRINT" output 
routine 

0786 8D 06 (078E) BSR $ 3 PRINT ADDhESS 

0788 86 0D LDAA#K'0D' 

078A 8D 32 (07BE) BSR PRINT 



32 



J68' Micro Journal 



<C) CHARACTER OUTPUT - To output a 
character the "PRINT" routine 
starting at 07BE is modified to 
drive an ACIA and to provide a line 
feed <$0A) on detecting a carriage 
return code (SOD) . The new listing 
is aa below 



00E3 CE 801C OUT.PTR LDX^X'SOIC 



07BE DF 82 
07C0 37 
07C1 CE 801C 
07C4 C6 02 F2 
07C6 E5 00 
07C8 27 FC 
07CA A7 01 
07CC 81 OD 
07CE 26 04 
07D0 86 OA 
07D2 20 FO 
07D4 33 



PRINT STX TEMP 
PSHH 

LDX#X f 801C 
LDAB#X'02 T 
WAIT BIT B 0,X 
BEQ WAIT 
STAA 1,X 
CMPA*X'0t>* 
BNE Fl 
LDAA*X'0A a 
BRA F2 
Fl PULB 



The Aaseabler - This, like the loader, 
is configured for parallel output 
to the printer port and will not 
support teletype operation even though 
there is aooe provision for it in the 
software; the print command 
description (p 11) in the instructions 
tells the user to enter 72 for 
teletype use. When the printer 
initialisation and output routines 
found in the section "PRINTER INTERFACE 
ROUTINES" are modified, an entry of 
72 allows the teletype to be used but 
on iy if the following bug on page 3 
is fixed. The instruction on line 200 
($00CA) should be changed from "JSR 
PUT.CHR" to "JSR 0UTPTIT . 



Port Configuration - The 
initialisation routine i 
between linea 88 ($0000) 
($000F) and starts with 
"INIT.PNT"; it should be 
with the initialisation 
above in the section on 
modification. After the 
of the replacement code, 
down to the RTS. 



printer port 
i contained 
and 96 

the label 
replaced 

code given 

loader 
last line, 
put in NOP 'a 



Character Output - The output routine is 
contained between line 213 ($00B3) 
and line 224 ($00F9) and starts with the 
label "OUT.PTR"; it should be replaced 
with the code given below 



00E6 C6 02 
00E8 E5 00 
00EA 27 FC 
00EC 16 
00ED C4 7F 
00EF E7 01 



WAIT 



LDAB^X'02 1 
BIT B 0'X 
BEQ WAIT 
TAB 

ANDBtX^F' 
STAB 1,X 



Then NOP's until 
00F9 39 HTS 

Ed Smith's Disassembler and Trace (V2.5) 

This package allows the user to 
examine, change and execute a program 
line by line under complete operator 
control when debugging a program. A 
print option allows all or part of a 
listing to be transferred to printer 
port 7, but again the configuration is 
for a PR40 printer. In casette form the 
program Is supplied with 3 different 
origins $3700, $2700 and $1700. The 
code listing given below is for the program 
at $2700. As no source listing is 
supplied with the package the code changes 
given below for printer initialisation 
and output are shown in a disassembly 
listing. 

Port configuration starts at $27CE 
with a LDX $2715 which is where the 
port address is stored. 

27CE FE LDX $2715 

27D1 C6 LDAB ^ $ 03 

27D3 E7 STAB 00 ,X 

27D5 C6 LDAB #$45 

27D7 E7 STAB 00 ,X 

27D9 C6 LDAB ♦ $3F * 

27DB 01 NOP 

27DC 01 NOP 

27DD F7 STAB $27E8 * 

27E0 39 RTS 

* These codes must be included. 

Character Output - starts at $27B6; 
again with a call for the port address 

27B6 FE LDX $2715 
27B9 C6 LDAB # $02 



W Micro Journal 



27BB D5 BIT B 00 r X 
27BD 27 BEQ $FC ($27BB) 
27BF A7 STAA 01 ,X 
Then NOP' a down to 
27C9 33 PULB 
27CA FE LDX $27E9 
27CD 39 RTS. 

SWTP CORES Aaaembler (V2.0) 



folloeine ertioles ere available froait 
Kauri oa B* T« Swlnnen 
teaaa Iaetrua*ntn Software Coneultent 
9213 Lanhaa Severn Road 
laohtut, Maryland 20601 

*Toxea InBtrusxmta PC^IOOA laterfaoo Deoorirtion' 13 rvoa 

'CRT Later-fee e for II-59 f by J.Janjon uad ^, J^yer 25 wvraa 

Oireutt dlagrsn of TI-59 1 t>a/»« 



If I ever find tfte tie*, I hor» to deolgn hard*.*re nM software 
for thm interfeea, unlooa I buj *n A*9S11 or AL9512 first, 
fbere mui to be enough Information in the nbove *t le«ot 
for r rtl aa ln a ttoe PO-100 or with intem-xl eirtas nimumirv: 
the keytaard* 

31nooroly youro. 



fUohctrd 2. tall 



^d^ 



It doea not appear poaaible to 
obtain a aource code Hating of thia 
product from the aupplier but aome 
information about it ia to be found 
in the literature (1) . The routinea 
are the same aa previoualy diacuaaed. 

Port Configuration - Thia atarta at 
$17A2 with a LDX $ 801C and finiahea 
at line $17ABj the printer initialiaation 
code liated in the modificationa to Ed 
Smith 1 a loader can be uaed but do not 
include the NOP' a - atop at the STAB, 
0,X inat ruction. 

Character output - the code for thia 
atarta at $1A83 with a STX $01CA to 
aave the index regiater which ia then 
loaded with the printer port address. 
From $1A89 onwarda aubatitute the 
printer output routine given in the 
aection on modifying the Ed Smith 'a 
aaaembler. After entering the 
neceaaary code put in NOP' a down to $1A99 
juat before the RTS located at $1A9C, 

Reference 

<1) GASS, G.A. 1979 Patching the 

SWTPC Co-Reaident Editor Aaaembler. 
Dr. Dobb's Journal of Computer 
Catiathenica and Orthodontia. 
Vol. 4 pp 28-36. 

THE BIT BUCKET 

Where all that 'good stuff 1 falls. 
Somethinq for everyone. 

529 Fourth Avenue 
B*thlun» PA 18018 
August 11* 1980 

•W* Horo Journal 
JOJ* Maadll ld« 
*. C. Box *49 

n, Teaaaioee J7343 

81m 

Aaaa ttaai aeo. iter* «ee a letter Id the •Help 1 oolusn 
aawnisTI iijj. In n 1 1 ■■ 1 1 mi od the interface to a TI-5fl 
«j0l2*tor« A* 2 hart* a TI-59* I have a alallor interest. 



PERSCM 



MEW8 fitlEAtt 



HRCDM DATA COMHNV, INC 



Harold Haueh 
(214) 272-34*1 



PERCOM MAKUFACTURIKG VIDEO DISPLAY CONTROLLER 
FOR EX0RC1SER* EUS SYSTEMS 

Cerlend, Texas - April 23, 1940 • Harold Mauch, president of 
Parcoit Date Cowpeny, announced here today that the company 
is now menufecturing a video display generator/controller nodule 
for the EXORdsir* and EXORciser**bus compatible syeteae, 

The VOC card, deslgneted the VC-EX(ta) is the third eieiber 
of the Porcoa ModulJEX(tw) fully of low cost SXORclior* bus 
compatible aodules. 

Other ModulEX(ta) units include the lPD-«COEX(ta) alnl-dlek 
system and the MoSBXCtaO 64. Kbyte RAM card. 

Mauch slid the VC-EX(ta) is ae»ry resident and therefore the 
host MPU hts direct access as for any other aeaory. 

He seid the aeaory residency feature aeons the dlspley Is 

Instantly updated, and pro&raa control of display characteristics 

is accomplished by etralghtforverd aeaory eddrestlnz exd data 
Display characteristics that aay ba software controlled 

include data line length, nuaber of data lines per freae, 

scrolling, cursor positioning, character intensity eed ecsnalng 

aode (interlaced or non-interlaced). 

The display as? also be eesily modified for reverie video, 
i.e.. black cherectere on white background. 

The VC-EX(tn) includes on-card RAM to eceoiaodite all display 
control ragiatera end provide for character store aeaory. The 
on. card RAM aay be strapped for residency in either of two aeao:y 
space locations. 

The VC*EX(ta) cheracter generetor generates III characters, in 
a ?xft dot aetrlx, including Englieh letters with true lower case 
bite line descenders, Greek let ten, nuaerali, standard 
correspondence symbol* and speciel syabola. 

Other features of the VC-EX (ta) Include: 

* A buffered parallel input port which allows the YC-MCta) 



34 



J68* Wcro Journal 



to ecconeodete in encoded or uoeocoded keyboerd, a panel 
af aeabrane switches or other input device, 
1 Provision for an optional J716 EPftOM for ute In generating 
op to 121 additional syebols ar character*. 
Provision to lrterrupt MPV operation using a CUT sync or 
blanking signal, Thie feature allow* the processor to 
update during video blenklng, for eieaple, to porait 

Look at What You Get in a Low Cost 
64K RAM modulEX" Card from Percom 




0«i«y^nd-dr1vefi 
Venapevent relnaari 
Ptvityc^dc option 

Futy 

the EXORdtW . Rodkf^l 

System 66 end other S-86 bus syvlvma 

tt+ m r u ji mj *} memory atoeaton 



And you gel e toe mora —<or r^ndMda ol dolvn 

lowWfcnmocoTTisjrtoii Moa*ota 64K Ram MV 



ag*vzed * btoefceol 16K an w-bowJ OP 

eeret* penreta em/ CaTTsVeaikin ©I 4K-OiO*k* Oi 
RAM. wtINo the uDDW 32-KOylee, of memory 
space, to t* enitteo or dambhd 

This «K eoA04nA)ktaoie cepaWrty, together 
vnth an eddnvos tranejetor lha) aceorrvrodaKrs 

C*he«re«ort/deed memory nQocaltoA, may bo 
uta^to#TH*emjniprog/am-«e*»cia<Jw*iinpcolec* 
oon end other memory management (unctions 



Moreover, the low cost 01 irws M6«Ek t " 
(oni^ 1 " cvd restate Worn a de**y> oased on 
Hate ot-ine art memory center c*cu-»y and 
•M*essmOI^I»K«r< — advanced iC&iha) pemei 
cost^MacJrw tfTtpfamertiahon ol Vanspejent re- 
kesh and otne' taaeu»e» 

Trvee^Jata Ouftss interlace the M&iCX~ 10 
Ihe ftyoem bus, and a* RAM and complex Cs are 
ituied in DIP eoc*el* An e«kms»ve capacitor 
byora grid mrtmtfet c^CMrf-go'wated rose 

Of couto the PC board and primed wring are 
heavy duty ndutfnaJ grade quamy as noted *i the 
apeerfcatens on 11*9 back 



PERQOM 



^PtOQUtUtM EQWP**lf J 



4ir 1111 IwiMUltdmt 
rlir **»« ■i Uih laial, «l*i 



a T •■»M«i iXlrt, VlOU 
;IW**1 knf »r<Mi.l*4 a* la *«■ Mi 



totally "glitch* fret*' displaye. 
d Provision for "valid neeory addraas" control by any of 
three tystaa bus lines, a a night bo required if the bus is 
sharad by nor a than one systee* or if sore than one 
VC-fl(tn) card is loilalled in tho aaate ayataa hue. 
An optional VC-BX(tn) driver progroa, In either 6100 or 6SQ9 
code, la available In ROM and on aini~dl*fcetta, A AOM driver nay 
ba installed in a socket provided on the Percoe MPV ModulBX(tn) 
card. The MPU operating systee, PSTMCWCte) , and the video 
drlvar auto* 1 in* in a vay in which the driver aarvea to extand 
tbo PSlMOKUn) operating lyste*. and la which PStllOK(ta) I/O is 
vectored to tho video driver. 

Orders fer the VC-EX(ta) ear he placed or additional litera- 
ture raejueated by dialing Percoe 1 * toll-free order number, 
l»goO«5l?»lS12. OEN quentlty prleing schedule available on 
request. 

(taO iredeaurk of Percoe Date Ceapany, locorporeted. 
* t radon* rk of Motorola Corporation. 

W Micro Joumn 



«■» ttrei tOCaaw IMar-atad In r.S.t. 'a aoftwara product* *ith thalr 

lot redaction of BJkJTr *oe umrrmtct tot iii ttot. »» *•«?• or a *••? 
txonsleer, o»>f hnt (••• »■■ to c«****rt rtlw e.i 10 <•• on ttw *^tspi)i-h, 
Irt 4«l^S ee. ♦* ■•» 4luwM(t4 \*+\ i**»ral Aaatrefc)* iHImih *•!■ 
»lt«»r «ct •v4tlt4>l» or *•«• not cc a j»i table «Mh wr alia drlrvc rewtlpra. 
Mi • fiitltj -■. riM «iihU«i *lth • erovlne lltaarr o< i«JHM*f and 
otlMf p*o«taaii wetce «a «mIS llti to attif*. 

t»le anfilh, v* •*« •vtatil«l«f a eaVOOr BtMItT' tt "Ml T«*i on aaf 

rtats. e.a ar«t«« niw it **>«■ mi twi*t**f* 10 *t*t r\natciw» ou««m« or 
ru. (»**>f. aarvor «*t*P «n **etor* rr«- «»>» dt»t«ti» 10 e r t«« n 

to *»■ aii«*ll« *i» Srtv* II. T»v» (*t4iU !■ wi tuct d«7Itc4lion o< Hw 
dlaiatla In «rt» 10. l*r^7» •x*«wl*a In 3.% »ii«ul«a, ce a jpicao to •• 
VO<* «• IS OtlMltaa toi t»# FLO rtJT» ccoeaffd COOTi*? ■ fnll dll« . 

trfif, aay-eo* >tl) not coeteentt* tn» n;»i coe-ioe to eriw li. 

t* a«a eAreup. itoolv •■»•? <a*reo* a . tlv* v««« 1« t*a« mi»4 if •* 
»l«K«a to Mcaue ri«a> Ortva 10 to «i. II • 'V- la inr^rro. in* M««r la 
• •tad •»*» TOO SOBVT 4 , 11 IMlhrf •»« I* •nt*r*(S > eaVOO* proc«Od» to «OfP» 
Ori*« IB to "Iflra 4). t«j a|| B ir r«oo. rLt3t I* anterad 11 • rvwpov** otWt 
tnar* •»* «■ *«c»1»*a. A d«t* tiatatla o«y to boctad oy •*cn*na,ioo t t.» 
dlikntta in duva 10 far or a trPinf ■ *r» itapofwa. All dara on «•!«• M 
#11) ba o»ir«rttcan «lts d«ia ffoa «tl«* #0. rl*> 1« tttrttd <•?«» 
c<>vviat)oA or a*reir». tt )a «vot hac>iA«rr to )mi IK* OOS since all 
etClOt* ■»■ *r» hkI e*07f of tba erttloih 

•ACftf dtefqari lactor raidi and wrlfoa *o that atnloaa «|pa la #«it*d 
d«#* to dlik (i>IM*om1 4«lari« eaadioe iaS trin*9 avacv thlt* nhyalCil 
avcior ecovldia \i,m liataal J»a«li>La 1A^«tth In* dlak, drlvora *• ar« 
uaina. r* yOur ayatao Aooa aot »ia«ata B*-wt*» In apt><-oct*ataiy j.i 
■ loutaa* than yoa wilt Kavo to chanoi th# a*«tr.r <W*»tfy it lib*) 
•PCV0HI«. TT»a aacteaa on a*tr. trick if a p*rai<al1y «rr*.OT«0 in thi 
followlne ordar* 1 >». II .).•. l)»%, 10< |*« T , »*,»,», *«,• 

■lltri. alr<or erianlaa* OArKUP anould #iao mrt Tor rhv olhldiat t»rn«* 
ol eiSf rt«t. «■ lu*aaat t^p following ct anlaai At 1 1 n«i 4? and 11 
cfcanVa tha ■ J !• In tha anPiviilon to tM nnobof or aactora l»i ' i *i* 
rot tka aioinoepy, Al llnaa Ji© a<id U4 china* tn# ""■ to lb* rVKObir 
o( traek* P«r dlitattv. 



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• er.Aoe A*n *nrrr» aav rrvizvcr •xrn •iiat ««iei«*.iM « 

1 TIM 1* HMTIB TWO TO Mit wrrAttOPHll TWtATS. 

• Tvte cvrtLirv oeaa all AVAtLAaue mxMrr j»ar* *» * • 

• OUR ftATA 90TTV*. kit. 9ter0*& AH <TPiro. 



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ii mmi pc?T»n» piDtnpr sue. 

#m**l*» Pi«s»n»r» thatx sup;. 

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AOTAOI.rrt AAV* BTVTZB ****T APOa, 



imn *%*f% rea»a**». 
*rv«r"» f»l*F 9. 



(714) ??4.4087 




K*ny thanJia. 

K«*p up tha 'JdcmJ work I 

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up finwr maa *o vr»rrv «-ar. 

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<"H»A |T7 COPl** 0t*TlBI M**"* 

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%m€ rwiliw fin ir xvict. 

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ami pttRiA on ir rttrt. 



• fllAt OK WVrvt StVJpfdf* NUHSX* AT T»W , HOY 

• txrittoiMO 77»* twm. w»Hitt o»» rittrta to AHAf»/v*m 

• rH HiMT*i r H I MIM TtArK mv*r.m m •*«, ivFfn 
« *^*m Aonuiifi ri owadk. i« rii* h ""■ 'iwwn, 

• Arm rrnTArop ORiotiAi. x:»a»ttt»c TAAnr wvra. 

10 fC04 t£NPT too IOrASII.fr> I->lM CP 00F7T?. 

10 fWT W>* UDHTM.vrO NUMAKI OP TATtJ TO CO0V< 

to nr* ii* mt,?*-i rnmw THArn. 

•o a t*w* a.» »»»> 

tc 11 itawrta ua« c*m>»tt.fCit fcrjtioti t*r»o«* f**» mm «rfin. 

to fvil ttmlrfj CO* nA.^i OUT TSATK Wilt. 

CO A t8t) O.U* 

•a rata ami 

31* O.T DO MAO Off tUlITl. 



Dt*r Mr nUltna 

I ottetof ottajf tjttiaflol ujmto of % mi any tpot 

PAuopo by B«*t»4Lr OoiojFUtUc SWro of fArw^Ary 1a fAgXtB* , I* m 4W««I«a>40 

to peurlA* • Jmkao»«i«« 4C/4i«m *vr eaooU «ho bMdai Tlao or aa/bo iMUty 

to (UtkLei; oaa for thtoaalVaa* In aqr nxo trLaaoa It Aaa tniooMd*^ ay eloiitj] 

•voiythiiv*; ad*t»ly tofl r —a n otbly ohtt^ly, no trlak oiivuita for lmtatttal 

Iti t«o a«*4««At<MP»A of ooura», oo rM^O, tod 62fjkHa doolt. »t/ Byoiiai oaa 

)<K oX Hi*. KLk^Mf oo«ip4kti6l4 Mot&tor ualryc a aaaory oaooad TOCj tod niaa 

r»C aoftvaav undar CIV. T9C oi«la *>rU3Mls •»*»• ujr for ttaa aloa tea**. 

Tb» ayjitM dpaim f t atop at J<ut aU lb* lAstoUCwia jw «ould oaadi aran a 

66X>9 90 otirtf and a /loopy oantrollar •*• swilaiUt) U Jtit fom. 



it catt 

•t tltO A 

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Ziaara ara juat a aoiipXt of oiApj u*t at 
to do for f» and ay fcltBdA. Uk« tavba i 
Xoa«rr«oa a 40OO JtViO, too ooulo lika u 



1 o«*r thara ad^pt ba •hi* 
• a ooapla of fapaa toltai 



• ntixv pnt diii nooa. 
■ laaoa, i^owvnr* eamjt hitd* «i-rr etb trtwt 1 

• it r>ni otrvtui to ttA* «™ AfrttTMtt to run. 

• aho otrrut rranvAo ftn tirtjot at anno. 

cttttaa am earn zaaoa ir .as. rod. 

M 

DnVI LIAT 



CMaCti >aca iinm < 
loa ai 00 rea * loom ma. 

Otl*M rttot a.r«* umnn aanoa com: 
tm) o*a**l 00 TTfUTca. 



aot up ay CIV ioopa to raad ado «rtta? iLaaa th# T7* r>on f»9hmmi ba« £29 
*£a AoataaJ of a round 1000 it aoada to sat anall** loop*. &« o*oo^ 
Utile taln« ltd UM* to find to a noppy opacwtl^ *j«vm for 5 lank 
Bard aaotorad Cl^t>la« that I «an Cns*o*jm , or aoy idaaa boa I one r*ad 
•of 1 Motor floppltn alth 4 6nrd Motor ooctroJUar. 



LOA 



A KI*A4 *TA 



1OO0 4 MM. 



1.1 



ott to ml* 



ooi»a* cut 
ooitt* r?tf 

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OOlOM Cltl 



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Gar CTawunui mar* rcot. 
•rr rx*o* Coot in rra. 
t*t rtm kmbo mad*. 

aac prr t*ao* cORDiTiow. 

LM »M*V,*rA tttf^QBl ITVt PTlt. 

rOll t>*,t>,A,T.0,*C AA-rUlPI NTT* gftAyit COOO- 

* tub rottdMrao r*aL* luawuft tiao* oooaj h* 

* aomjtno it Tin otl* o*T¥fPJ to m epjio* 

* coot AmwAtLC to run *wmn- mxrrimm. 

a atoro pen 



tM look forvaxd to baarlnij ftoa you on 
a^> latt«r»i !«*«• and aoftoara with t 



f tharo and mtk* Jivi plaaoad to 



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•930* 
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• ocwu »«o/**im» pc • cvmt tmci am 

• OTAOatltD fOA PAlTMT POHIOU I/O. 

• pATttaa It tVCRT l*n PWTIIrAl. AaCTDt. 

a acroa* pc* 

A PTf> 

* ••! 



'tjtf* mero J<aL«rr*ol 

FTJB 849 

HlwaoO* TM 37343 



btiitt 



p cim mop riot aavra rut 

dam* e a«) MBtt*a raot oatau rat? 

DWitL HOC ti*ro CJ«I MIT not 

iar* cim trpai cic) **raj cice 

iohtJ cf» icm*ti r)*4 wtttWH ciw 

imi »ar arronn c»l ituo cm 

r call na rltt r* c|l| 



OCA Mlllloni Sr. 

*68> Hiero Journal 

POa £49 

30 1» HnnlU xooa 

Hlxaon. Tannoaaoo 37343 




21 Ap*rll 1980 



wo would daaply apprtKlato voi*r announcing tho fornntlon of 
• 66xk u»4>c'« <;coup 1a tho S*n Piooo nroa. Anyono lntoroatod 
ahould contact! 

Nol 2addl«a 

1654 Poclflc ooocb Drlva 

San Dlooo, CA 92109 



Trita irttar- tt ,n roalai -da L*> (WrOBSOFT PfBCa**. HEL£ftSE }.*. 1 hM 
rotrolvod t> Itrlijiv fr^os rtr* Joot oC DMrmaao^l P'aacral ■ aid bo oioMainog 
tra* dolvu in anawaw inn aw latter to **# totitf ac tior*, «o alao offoroo 
an anloafw rpir t>rt* do lav, ». Jo*t ru*« bt*on wopKirui on i**d*t*A to 
Ptjtcol and aAoulct P>ovo aoaa* r\zu**» "ODodtor" <"o»- i^. 

rV. Jott woa kind avv^atrn. t*> aortf .y vr« irvTor^oClon tiwt I n aa J a n) 
to oAot Pnacol to print on POST «3 V m% wall at fi**tnor- inf or-*A*»tlon on 
wain* v*» p*k«i routine*. 1 rxavai olao tolK^o to rv. Joat b% tolorn^^. 
and J full* o n* ml Owiowot*! to 6ae*» tnolr aoru^oro <-»i «»*♦». 

TM» Po%cal •** not «*• a full aiaad dit*s P**col« but I fool tnart 
it la acr-th tAo Pfie*. It ia olao a vo<~w atood loorninn Poacal for- 
tPtoao 4tl«t>t wlan to to** v*» to a fun Pnctl ot a fut**ra> onto. 

Tnn>o\ weu for tn* oata-UMltv to t*i Wo rvcvxi at*rolta>vr 



JoV P. StortrtnaAvl 
ffOH 949« 



'68' Micro Journal 



DonMUlUatf, pufellahar 


#• *ior* Jowtnal 




101* »a-i:i ad,, 


BOH lit 


HUM, T*ftn«*B*< 


■ >n«i 




— — 

11 July i 



1 3**»t made ■ dlooovary that l*d Uka to afc*r* with other (Mo u»era. 

2 uu rUl 2.0 with naneeo/rertee drlvea *M<* are eopeblo o* oj^ ratio? 

on 40 tracks, and J*v* put the patotvee to pimpi** «* »tawn in recent itaoea 
of the 10 Micro Journal, The patch** uork fine, except when I triad to 
u*u all forty tr*e*e al 0*8? 'flatty Plat's, an** t triad to road or wtlt* 
to BBTtAiaa: in tree** H-ie. I oot all aorta or droodod MSI rtLl *xu> tnni 
I c*ra(u)ly pullad out wf nalr d mipactad awful things About «y drtvfi, tod 
About panlckad Vhan I looked at tTi* PASr dlika, ar*J diicovurad that th« 
hoi* la About 1/1* ihortar than on tha vtrb#tl« dlafcattaa i'wm been wain?. 
TflO wear ***** alao vara disturbingly cIsh to tha and of the kale, 
cenciuaiont past diet* won't *»n with *o tracm uaiaaa you »mt to 
nut! late tha data Kola, 



4e t*r, wy eonclualon haa provan true* although v* loat aooo 
datt iiyt^ before va diaoovarad tt. 



orient 



JsdHt- 



r 6 ' Micro Journal 
1011 Hemlll Md., 
PO to* 049 
Hilton Tennessee 
37J43 U.S.A. 

FUX09 W.6 PATCH TO USo WITH OLD 8W7T BOX 

Dear Editor;- 

For people who um PLKJt 09 Varalon 2,6 with 
old M& oox (NJ»E-type mother board), the following 
patch nay be uecful. 

Khan potter up or reaet, th* PLEX lnitialitee 
I/O porta by 16-eddreaa-apae* tup, thue every time 
you reetart you have to reiocet* I/O addroaaaa by 
I'iNN step valnc 9M1.CPV unlae* you Haw noma at 
3MT? modala auch as t/09 or 69A, 1M* patch allow- 
to lnltlallaa by 4-apaco atop a« old verelon of TLM1 
did. 

SBPX.CND atlll workd aftar thie modification. 




Original Data 
00 



Pate had 
04 



Cm 

126 Edgefield, 
Point* Claire, 
CAM ADA 



Hyk IN} 



Pat if Hurray 
P.O. boi 4tM2 

Auetia* TI 7P?« 
July 21 » HbO 



Cwe Pllllee*. fditar 
'M 1 Mara Journal 
9010 a*mlU load 
i 3? 343 



PaaT ooa. 

1 aoold 114a ta taka thla opportunity ea lafor* roue raadara chat JCf 
la aav tela*: «jp»ll*J with aa etdltlaael Progre* that will allow procedure 
calli iroai a aalallaa traaadura. 

U4JCP li uaaa aa a mr a^aiaaA trttbla a pra««d«ra to load aod 
asonatt awothaf aroa«dara. Mpaa, ooacluataa af tha calUd tracaduca, 
aaatral will ratata to eta aaialiaa yraaadura and asaautloo will r—tmm aa 
tha Um fallavtoa tha IZUCf aa—ial. 

Vita, taa add It la* of LlaJCP, tha aaar oaw baa aoatbar la*al of oaetral 
•t ala (ar bar) *Up*»*l far aaaopla. a proaUttra aao aov W vodad ta 
oaadral tha aaacwilam of aavaral ptocadtfaa. 

■laaaraiy, 



Patar ihirrar *f 



\ traiaairt mi Thchalul Iritasa C*aaulu«4 



I 2 2 5 TID9IT9 



"StXJS will aooo aftflounco a ailcrocoaputar natworV (S&WT) - 
3DKET li a aharad raaourca alcroccajputar-baaad natwerk for 
locally dlitrlbotad data procaaalni «nd data aanaga««nc. 
Saa tha flrat »ub*jrcup nawalattar for oatatla. 

"tSOi la row aaailabla for aMOHclaor uaara, alona with cKa SO 
■AilC Coapllar. haaaablar and Idltor. Tha CXMcIaor S00ft alao 

aupporta a It nogabyta Winchaatar hard dlaVc (aval lab la froa St» . 



,( A docunamt procaoalng progras, TYPE, haa boan raltaaad by SD. 
TYPE la aultoblo for ■*>narattn| lattara or larga docuaaota. 
T(ri allovt coup lata control of Una vldtha, pax a depth, oatilna, 
paga ruaabarlng. tltlaa. and footnotoa. Eight and loft aargln 
juatlflcatlon la parforoad automatically, A morga option allowa 
■tnaratlon of form lattara with customliad namaa and/ or data 
inaartod mnywhara . Tablo of Content* ganoratlon and 0«v»" daclmol 
notation era alao aupportad 

"SD la currently working on a butlnaaa pack* a*, intituling Ac count a 
Payablo. Acoounta Kacalveblo. and Caoeral Ledger. 

"Tho long awaited oASIC VI. 4 Compiler ahould be available to end- 
uitn Soptemoer lit. 1980. ThU compilor provldaa line lebela, 
peramatarlzod multi-line functlona and aubroutlnee. atrlog array*, 
and am*llar/f aat*r compiled cod*. 

"SDOS/Kt. * mult I- terminal varalon of SOOS la now available (ini- 
tially on Hldwaat Sciantlftc Tpacruoent* equipment) which handle* 
Pour uaara. SD0S/MT aupporca hard dlak, flopxiea, and Una 

erlntore. In e totally device Independent fathton. A apeclal 
Irtual Terminal driver make a appl teat ion program* Isdeoendant 
of CM a by defining a atandard BOO* I/O call to perform CRT curaor 
pooltlonlng, etc. aASIC VI. 4 haa language conatructa to make thla 
facility eaay to ua«, 

"40^9 varalona of SD'a popular aoftvare will alao aoon be available. 

CON P7TIRMARI 
PROUDLY AMH OUMCgfl 

Ctl HANOOM 9AB1C 7£R t.O / VIR 2.0 FOR 199 DISK 391*1 

CamPvt*'w*r«'i tribute to the e#XX famllyl ewf newaat 4100 and 
490* RAKOON SABIC'att Aa one Of the major veere of NANDOK lAgIC $«r 
aoftwera tftvalo*ma*t. wa i;now what featurea a pewarful 9A9XC abawld 
hivii He have eicaeaed even our own goala and again prevld*<l the 
4tXX cematueity with the most powerful l**lc Interpreter etaiiabla. 
Vttiion p.O (4900> and 2.0 (49fl*> ar* not )u«t the prel.uct af aeete 
»r«t*iiia hevaa.,.. th*y ere tha culmination of over J y«*rd *f feint 
effort batmten ayat*a>i and applicatlnoa prof raaiaiara. Rat* *f program 
aavalepnentt dabugglni, and eocuatan tatlon are the type of factera ew 
new vtritoAi eonc**trataa' eo« ai aeen in the overview below* 

VIRIIOH *.0 / 2.0 OVIRVIIH OP K9M PtATTPIIi 

• 124 character variable labela. BASIC uiat the flret 4 to eatahllah 

vnio,vana*a, but tn* variable *«mao may be up to 12* Char act ara, 

• IP ... THRU ... IILIS ... te allow greater eaae of progrem flow 

and tighter, fetter program elocution. 

• AtJTO prof ran Um rtumbartng *)l*«a faatar, eltanar prefrem entry. 

Tow caoeaa tha atartlng Una eumbar *nd the incremeet value, 

• PACE an* UNPACK atrlng variablat allow concatlnatlon and a a par at Ion 

of atrlng variable* at lifntMng *fl*e< and with only one comment 
tee oppoaad to uelng MfCa, LlPTb. RIOBTt>. 

t Tha 00 corhritand atacutea DOI utility command* from 9AllC» 

• Kith eatandOd varUbla namaa. yoy need the ability to CORTXltOl the 

Dlak I/O itatamanta onto additional linae, 09T, WVT, RIADp 
ttRtTE can now be continued on aa many llnaa aa you like. 

• Bvaryon* haa probUfM paging correctly on thair report*. The new 

PAOI commend waa added to do the bulk of the wark for yow. 

• KIUB and P9IIK - ware edided to allow tha programmer to knew hew 

much frva memory apace la available or how blf a flip li. 

• BAB1C automatical^ aatabllahea if tha lyatem drive 1* elngle or 

double denelty and allecatea file control hlot.k «p*c* 
accomtnaly. Thoaa are compatible with any varalon ef 991 DOI 
from VS. ft to tha new V4i0 <4900l and Vl.O thru V2.0 (490*1. 

• Automatic toed 9 Do. when you cell 9AIIC from the dlak< you may 

add tha name of a program to be toaded and aiecuted, 

• Oeaoite the fact that Cll RAX0OK HAB1C now haa tip cemmende« 

functtone and itatement*. tt la attll UIDII 1SE (10010 — ) 
P1S4I) in alta - lnclMdl^g all He work areae. 

• Mh*t mora can wa aay? We've concentrated en uaatillty. 

flaiibility, and performance, egeln raining th* 4IXX aeftwere 
atenderd. Tou need net accept anything lata than the BI9TI! 



Whet we need In The Journel 1$ e ^beelnner's" section; not 
juit for hacker* but for 'usera* like myaalf — ltttte Au«« who 
atlll work In 4etlc bacauaa wo can make daalc work* mho feet a 
great thrill If w* punch In a published rOulirte and It ectuetly 
run*, and wile feel •■ If th*v have conquered Mt. Everest If they 
actually comolne Proiraat* end routine* (euCh aa the etteched) end 
make It **i go* 

A greet amount of attention t» being paid to the exciting end 
nawj the 4101 and tha 61000, to Flea 2.0 and VnlFlei, to "Suoar 
laile Varalon 99. 4*. and to a proliferation of "new" lerttweiea. 
well end good. Va need the newt* but It anould be n*wt. not 
gobpel. Tha electronic medle nei (at ia«t> learned that now* 
ahould be brief and conclaa. "Olve the newi, ihut up. end move 
on to the lubttanc* of ih* day." 

Th* M iobttanee of the dar 1 (for me, et leest ) In eomsut Ing It 
•till mlnlFtax, SWTPCo Bealc If I need mathematical accuracy to 
acme longer length, T$C lealc If I read ipeed, end TSC'i Teat 
Editor end Text Procetaor for en eatromely oowerful word 
proceeding avetem. My two little $ Tnch dltkt still hold mora 
data than I ever work with at one ttmei 1 hove a couple of 
cesaette machlnee On an AC-30 that Just about never eat uaed 
eacept to exchange programs with frJendi who atlll think like I 
do, end my alow poke Anderson Jacob son printer still turns out 
copy as fast as t can uaa tt. My Ixtal Printer, at 220 bead, 
makes nice reference coolee for me. 



W Micro Journal 



_37 



I envy the peoole with Printers running at 250,000 baud; 
video terminate that orlnt from too, tide, and bottom at the s»*e 
tine (I lure Ilka my Soroc I Q- 120 at 120Q baud); and bk bit 
proceiftlnt systems that can outoui the tincyclopedla BH tannics, 
completely formatted* In 27 tecondi. 

However, somehow It all *«««»* irrelevant. Since I don't keel* 
book* for the Comptroller of the State of Texas, nor do I do 
research for the United Statu* Coast and Geodetic Survey crews, I 
an not terrfbtv Interested In Reverse Polish Pascal running. In J 
mecobyies or static RAH> 1 am tremendously Interested In a 
prof rem* running in Baste, that would take the co-ordinates of 
Hurricane Allen (which just went over my home and that of James 
Cdldwotl), cottioere then to previous hurricane co-ordl netes oml 
Issue a "probability plot" on future movements. 

As usual, Dpn, I am unable to conrounlcate In e*act terms. I 
don't want "our" Journal fO Howl nil the pattern of Byte Kacailne. 
(I have Just let my subscription to Byte e^pTre end don't Intend 
to renew It.) (10 report the new but OOK't a*Suin* we al I have the 
resources to dash out and buy alt the new goodies -*- not only 
don't assume that we don't have the resources but please don't 
make the automatic a&SUrm>Cion we have the desire to buy It. We 
00 have Interest In tt, yes. 

Therefore, may w» have a few more haste Basic articles, a few 
more mintHe* oroarams (or bttter, programs written for Flex 2.3 
with the corresoondlnt mini Flex addressei, Riven so we can do our 
own assemblies^, end similar level. 

Remember n*7 I'm the cuy who Is still trylnic to rind sone 
way of financing tUe ourchase of a Glmi* Mainframe to hold wket 
cards I own. I'm sure not join* to buy a new operating system 
until I have chat. I don't reel that I stand alone In this 
tilnktnt. 



BIT 



BYTE1 


1 


BA 


fl F2 Fl 


F0 








2 





■ 


XS X* X3 


X2 


XI 


XO 


3 





■ 


XII X10 X? 


X8 


X7 


X6 


4 





■ 


Y5 Y4 Y3 


Y2 


Yl 


Y0 


5 





1 


Yll Y10 Y9 


Y8 


Y7 


Y6 



F0=Z AXIS SWITCH 
Fl» F2»F3=FLAC DATA 
X0-X11= 12 BIT X COORDINATE 
Y0-Y11= 12 BIT Y COORDINATE 
BA-BYTE AvAILIABLE 



(0 TO 2200) 
(0 TO 2200) 



Bevl Hi the*, 
AW 

^%/Ohn Ticker 



wkts<$S 



July 2, 1980 



66 Micro Journal 

}01S Hamil\ Road 
Hloon, TH 



tHtor 311*8 i 

Thonk» Tor a great publication for all of us tZtZ lovers out 
her*. It aeatts that all the other consumer computer mags 
have decided to go with the majority and are totally 
ignoring all the good heroVore and eoftw re being Put 
toget er Tor the 6000 series chips. 

1 would be interested In hearing from anyone who has 

done aema work on radio station TRAFFIC software. Specifically 

programs to h ndle logging. 

We era currently doing all or our payroll » accounts reeelv ble 
and cash flow with a. dual B Jnch system and SWTPC 6800 machine 
with 0#KPUTEKWARJ! RAUDQM BASIC. Thanka to Paul Seerbf and his 
Tine stoff mir system has paid for itself neny times oyer during 
the past * 1/2 yeera . Anyone not familiar with COMPUTKHWARK 
certainly should tafce tine to make contact. 

Keep uP the good work. 



ra truly, 




Jetiaf fcj 



l'<i,IU KW5 * HW Plaza 8 * ShdKiweui .Wwcoiwiii &W (HI • (434 , 457*5561 



Kevin* Ptfrcfaated a SaMrtrapMtt KH*#4 
for th# fMirpoM of entarina EKC data into *w 
iBW tutUa w fir it tat* was lo writt kht 
interfacing sftftoero* This triiclt Mill 
dftil apacifieall uiUi the xiilarf acini of tho 
bitted lo TSC'8 BASIC* 

First* Uwp bitpad if purchased caM 
with a parallel interface and was confisurad 
for a parallal binary transaission foraat at 
200 by tea/second* Tha data foraat consist** 
of a continiouslv transaitted S byte 
seouence as follows* 



The eight data lines froa the bitpad 
are connected to the eight inputs of a PIA 
located at address iEOlE* Also the bitpad 
produces a data strobe yhich is connected to 
the CB1 input of the PIA* 

The first part of the interfacing is 
accoaplished by BITPAD*BIN yhich yhen called 
reads in the next five byte seouence of data 
and places this data in a table* This 
prograa is entered at 'GETBIT' and returns 
with flag data at TBI* x posistion at TBL+1 
and TBL+2 andt y position at TBL+3 and 
TBLM* 

The final section of the interfacing is 
the BASIC prograa BITBAS*TXT yhich contains 
two subprograas BPINIT and BITREAD* BPINIT 
does the following* Onei places the aachine 
proaraa BITPAD. BINf contained in the data 
statements* in the array naaed PRQG( U Tyot 
BPINIT sets the address of the user function 
such that yhen USER(X) is invoked it calls 
BITPAD *BIN* Subprogram BITREAD yhen called 
returns with BPFLAG containing the flag 
data* BPXPOS containing the x posistion of 
the pen andt BPYPOS containing the y 
posistion of the pen* 

Tha use of this program is Quite siaple 
and I hope the users of '68' HICRO JOURNAL 
find this a useful program* Particulary 
since the bitpad has proved to be ouite 
useful and reliable* 



Jaaes Taaffe 
Boston University 
Dept* of Physics 
111 Cummington St* 
Boston Ha* 



3d 



68 Micro Journal 



I ftlTfOft I 
itmtuu 



I MtlHllr It JAMES TAAf Ft 



i iarvti 3 inu nan iitfm mo no pukes nc 

i mta :*to a tajlc. imp an i pcimt* to tic timer or 



COlC PlAMT EDO 

c if M*cn tau 



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ma awn. KCtttOt 



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•hkhid-3. 

s. Aocoa* ta* w«biM*iiA<u*t* ra«4M <&ruu4F» Maxrcloo oalia of tm tor* 
(Ml (It). 

4. HUM* iho rattt*o« tooata tho *-Oy*a vlVMot lif aart at TMf «a* 
tlaa r«M*cl*0 J-byt" w*1\m tl/ a*y> at tin mm »d4rta». 

7, if 4* atdaaaa or «t*a* «-*>yt» nt«t oyo*to? cm** 32747 *» eo o» poaoo* «c 
hi ■xovM«ne to 4 UA* furctioo, 4«4i 9#OU &a4 rr» to ploca tin «*l«a> at 
Uto looatloo Of an intaooc nriitli without OCVTorliO*. 



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LftA «43C SET TWMtSltTJOl.CUOSC 1 

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LET X.fOlirr TD ToJLE 
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fttt tCTlTT 

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t)im^ to* un of oo*«*4d umAIomo, lutod eolo«t 



oooo to* fonvoiOa uolaf oooktiob-iooooo&doai. toebA^E««o. 



TTooilxtorou tHo +me*Jjm uncjta) coo* iato data «ta^ 

iadlvidwl Wtoo «o h«o »uUt*. 



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390 
340 
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4DO 

410 
420 

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MO 
S10 
320 
310 
9*0 
53$ 
5*0 
570 
540 
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RBN 

UN 

Kill 



1hl» rnutiA* <jib» TAP** INflTF: rtincttno to oot 1 
coa^aiMf. Than DM OOTO la liaa<j to tKan*r»f control lo 
that eoa«ar>d» 



IAcoj ?»»• coaaarxd al^trvi y»tb 2 laaoina 



'•ELtCt OMt OF TMCftEJ* 

■ FIXOT OMt' 

•CCDttO 0«*E* 

* IMIAO OMC* 

• FOU0.1N OMC' 
FirtN OMt* 



FrpoN Horn* 
frmfik Hot* baotal loOorotory 
lurirum *•* Tor*. 13210 
RCH 310-474-7150 

ROM 
PWl 
C* - •-^rXNftttTHlaOtFlFEWft 

Affl 
f«JJ»T 
MIMT 

HtMtn 

HtJJMT 
PKIMT 
a*I*fT 
**!«' 

niHT 
■ruin 

i»ft>ur 

AAA 

ACM Olio* coojoanO to ba aant to FLAX if rr*c*4*6 bv a 

RCH YOHi can o^fn ftfiajnK* thm *ro*r— U«ata runnlna 1 I 

KM 
IF LfFTA<M.I> • •♦■ TMSM CXCCt «I0»cl».2l I OOfO 240 

AIM 

FtfOJ fi«ha lun t>*Or* 1* at !•••* J charKUrt 

ACM 
IF LAtNtftAl < i OOTO 300 

ACM 

ACn CM>p Off all tHIt flrai 3 ch«r*ct«r., 

AC" 
At • LfFTlf»f<J» 

ACN 

ACn HaAa II aeint to tha coition if\ t*m HMni tAot 1*0 

ACN OOteh eec«/f«d« iMfttA rotum* I t If no oatcrv. 

Afn Dl^lO* Do thro* ioaj aoM 1 to olvo * mtmtmr 1-7 

Rfn 'Or »«i* OM OOTO to nark ^'O^arlw. 

ACN 
I« • IMITAU.C4.A4> / J t 1 

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OM II 00 tO 

ACN 
•HIMT ♦'♦**!♦•» lo not a valid oooaprnJ* 



430 



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*er Micro Journal 



39 



600 ASn 

410 Fftjwr ♦ lru« t. thi rint on.' I ODTC1 240 

4?P HUrfl * IMt li lh* »«rp.nii or,-' I GOTO 240 

430 MUttf * "Mm Ji ir.p third une" I kUTCJ 240 

*« PRINT ' lhlt It tr*« Fourth cr>»* J OOTD 240 

*50 rfeixl * Ihi* it trip fifth CM* I flOTfl 240 

440 r>fc|*rT * I hi* L« thv I~MD* 

**o * *'■ 

som corfONLt ustfo Questions ajio answers r\sour i»te hew ritCfftuARF eew sofiuarc 



jh4t Is rtqulr&i to bri ng QS-9 yp on wy c geyuteW 

Tape-tatrd vtri1aiU"~reD>ire it lent 4t WW. IP*h verstnn* rehire 8* WW. In 
bo Hi cases, twice the «1n1«uai amount Is a anod worMn?) innunt. flur standard 
package* are set up to pluo i»eo most SS-S"! bus niachtnest RAH fron address ut>, 
MM et the top Of rejmOry (at least 2* • the other H can he anywhere), and J/0 
pores It StOOO. An ACIA-type Interface Is assumed In nort &. Tor tape srtteats. 
a pX standard tape interface using an ACIA serial Interface at SWIO Is assumed. 
Disk sy tern* e»)>«Ct to see the contrail frr at an address Chat depends or the type 
of board (Yoh* need to specify wMch brand and modrl wheri yoj order). In sone 
cases we'll lnelvde information on how to chirro switches or Jumper* to set 
yoor I/O addresses to a most Qptiwua location tor «ne«dry e*haniioo. Our ROM 
stti are desired for pluq-eompattp}* operation on SVTPC and ClUU CTU cards and 
■h In frames. 

Up* t i f mj lystem has npn-sUrvdard addresses . I/Oegutpnirrit, or I s triply p r efer. 
some oth r r tDfnTnu rati pftT 

K^TTs Inherently a very adaptable operating system. Also. \t you change 05.9 
you should not have lo change any other programs in the comoutcr. There Is a 
table In POM called a "configuration table* that contain* a number of start-up 
addressed, device naves, program namcSi etc. Jt Is possible to reconfigure any 
part of the configuration oy Installing an alternate configuration table in ROi 
addresses anjwhert In memory, which Mould contain four own parasuters. In some 
easel tN same moM could also contain compatible device drivers for *hntc*tr 
Particular I/O device! s) you will be usino. Though this Is fairly *ja*>1e to 
do* thp particulars are beyond the scope of this piper but are described fully 
in the OS-9 System* Manual which Is supplied with each program. 

'» 0$-9 or its flies cowMtlbte with n y present 3&S s uch as ILElLJttS~&$ L e tc,? 
Mo. When you install 0V9 It entirely replaces tfieTKfs" and manlYnr rfffTyoy 
presently use, We do plan to have utility programs avaiVaole In t*w fulure to 
e ad text files from your old DOS to OS-9 ffles. 



_c «s lo multl.user operation la t er on t will 
W i TV «y_ fl roient hardware «/_ p_t»f 



have to buy a ] 1 new 



If I wan t 

ioTtwintf 

OS-y Level - '!** ftfl be Tntrbduceil t hTs Vuppv rl is an vpmdr d*to^) at lb le s morsel 

of Lev 1 Or>e. Most software you buy fro» us for Level One Is $uA<-anteed lo wort 

on level Two. Also, if you follow our reecemnridatlOM in the OS-9 Systems Kanual 

when writing such inc.- Unouage programs, they will also be urwArd co*ratlbl«- As 

for the hardware side of tnlnQs, it depends on how new your comouter Is and 

what brand it l|, OS-9 level Two reguirei a CPU with dyrunic **3r*ss translation 

(MTJ hardware such «* SwlK or OIWJA, a real time clock of somo sort, a KlMmr 

of J2R RAM and a divk cortroller that supports Interrupt. drivan or &*W data 

transfer. 

! lUf 10h« [Qtjfrie software /ci>,j jre o/fprkn^, i.,j,1 J jirfifrr rn -.iirl W \." rj nld 

Inmost ciips7 no. Many"n>csp'nt'"6ftO^ or'"" r i)>. inn :*<.u-f l , < ....iii i,,i> vuppon this type 
softMarr mywy. 



CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING 

SWTPC MP-16 P 16K MEMORY BOARD, EXCELLENT 
CONDITION, PAID $450 SELL FOK $299. CALL 

702-453-4775 AFTER 5:00 PM. 

»#» 

SWTPC 680D, 20K AC30-$1000. TI725 "SILENT 
700"-$750. AJ SELECTRIC PRINTER 4 

TRACT0R-$1000. CALL ROB AT 303-237-2518, 

#*» 

HELP 

PURCHASED 32-1000 (HARD SECTOR) 1 BOX, 
NEEDED 34-1000, MAKE TRADE OR CASH 
OFFER. R.D.#3 LAWSON RD. , JAMESTOWN, 

N.Y. 14701. RUSS PINSBURY 716-484-0859. 

»*» 

BEING AN AVID READER & SUBSCRIBER OF 68 
MICRO JOURNAL, I HOPE YOU MIGHT HAVE A 
READER WHO CAN HELP ME. DOES ANYONE HAVE 
THE PATCHES NECESSARY TO RUN SWTP 4K BASIC 
VER.2.0 WITH A MP-S SERIAL INTERFACE BOARD 
LOCATED AT PORTIK I WOULD LIKE TO 
PURCHASE SWTP 8K BASIC VER 2.3 ON 
CASSETTE, ALSO NEED INFORMATION ON 
EPROMING BOTH SWTP BASICS AT ADDRESS 
COOO. PAUL RAMOS. 100 MIDDLE ST.,WOBURN, 
MA 01801 617-935-3758 EVES A WKENDS. 
P.S. WOULD LIKE TO HEAR FROM READERS IN 
BOSTON MASS V I C I NTY INTERESTED IN FORMING 
A 6800/09 USERS INFORMATION EXCHANGE CLUB. 



TIRED OF PLAYING THE 
QUESTION AND ANSWER GAME? 

Frustrated by the WnuHions otBA$lC? Tiredof question and onswoi data entry? 
Ever wrih you covW intor and update don the way <he8r*G SYSTEMS doil? 
Irritated by having lore-enie' somoono's Onlire name wheoaH you wanleoHOOowas 
changa one leiten WAIT NO MORE* NOW YOU CAN 

CONFORM 

ALFORD AND ASSOCIATES .i proud lopresoniih biocjoslliiifonamto 
hii he am all ay flams world since &A SIC ilfetl A & A has prod uced a program 
thai ai low s u%* t ol MEM O R Y- MA PRE D VD US jo dupiay ada la-eniry form 
on screen fill tn the blanka m» k*SCREEN-EDfT change* wilh functions such 

hINSBRTSPACE.DELETE CHARACTER. ERASE TO END OF 
FIELD, ERASE FIELD, TAB FIELDS. CLEAR ALL DATA 

FIELDS, lor nav entry. OIC. . .and do it all under ihe oonlrol ol your BASiC 



CONFORM works with 

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Why p»ay the Question and answer game wiih your Bas<c prog re m -> CONFORM 
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$h>iTf.Mia and nandrmg e * Ira on orders undo/ 1 HXJ OOVa Revder.is AOd4SSaies T a *. UPS COD. VISA, MA S TERCHARGE. personal checks all accepted grac lomly 



40 



68 Micro Journal 



A 16K SiAiic Mtiyiony BoAid fon ihe 
6800 aokJ 6809 SS-50c Bus 




Populated in 4K logmaniii u»lng the industry itindard 
4KX1 memory chip I4044, B2B7 etc) 

Oecodel 16 or SO address lino*, may occupy any 16K 
segment vvlthkn « one megabyte rings 

FullMlt » 899 * Assembled 8 31B 

Semlklt (ell parte but nvrmoryJ B S9 

Board and documont«ck>n S 29 



Rmencan Computer Works 

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OKLAHOMA CITY, OKLA. 73183 

4QB.78S'eBOB 



OSBORNE BUSINESS PROGRAMS 

This ENHANCED IMPLEMENTATION of the Osborne 
and Associates Business Programs Is the only Im- 
plementation available with the full capability of the 
original Wang Minicomputer version. 

FEATURES INCLUDE: 

* KEYED FILES to eliminate slow searches and 
sorts. 

* PASSWORD and MASTER PASSWORD PROTECTION 

to limit unauthorized access to your business 
data, 
w SELF-PROMPTING to perform data backups. 

* NEW MODULES for additional usefulness. A Cash 
Journal program, terminal configuration program, 
file initialization program, sample data base, etc. 

These programs are now available in compiled TSC 
XBASIC on both 5" and 8" floppy disks. All programs 
run under FLEX (tm) 2.0 on 6600 or 6609 Computer 
systems. System requirements are 46K contiguous 
RAM, 132-column printer, and two floppy-disk drives. 

ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE $295' 

ACCOUNTS PAYABLE S295* 

GENERAL LEDGER J295" 

PAYROLL with COST ACCOUNTING Lale September 



A 



Great Plains Computer Company, Inc. 



P.O. Box 916, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83401 



208-529*3210 



(7 



^ 



Soft-R ware® 

ease yourself into a new 
dimension of efficiency 

MICRO UTILITY PACKAGES— (6809 verions soon!) 

MICRO PROCEDURES®- new 

Turn your SSC 6800 Assembler into a Macro Assembler for 
more consistent code generation with less programming 
errors to debug. Use macro libraries for your standard 
subroutines. Specify 5 * or 8 ". Special limited introductory 
offers: 

MICRO PROCEDURES $ 19.00 

MICRO PROCEDURES & SSB SA-1 Assembler $65.00 

MICRO WRITER** a report utility enabling users 
to catalog report formats and specs. Turns your printer into 
a sophisticated prinlingfacility keeping track and perform- 
ing headings, footings, and accumulations according to 
your specifications. Includes translator, run time, and over 
60 pages of documation. $249.00 

MICRO SORTER™ — a tag sort and reformatting 
utility that allows cataloging sort formats and specs, 
written in 6800 assembler for better performance. Enhance 
sorting Random data files using multi-level, multi-field, 
ascending/descending sort operations and reformatted 
information into a new file for later use. $129.00 

COMMUNICATIONS, SCREEN FORMATTING and DATA 
ENTRY UTILITIES UNDER DEVELOPMENT. 

RE- MAT- IT** — for a painless, one-step reformatting 
utility for SSB DOS 5. 1 thai will allow you to upgrade disks 
formatted under 5.1 <or earlier DOS versions) to be 
compatible with the newer double density disk controller 
board. $24.95 

RE-MAT-IT™ plus ssb dcb-4 double density 

BOARD $459.95 

POWER PATCH M**— Convert yor 6800 Chief- 
tain to run FLEX* on SSB's or SWTPC's 6809 board. 

Power Patch M ® for SSB $34.95 

w/SSB SCB-69 6809 board $3 19.95 

Power Patch F-1® for SWTPC $54.95 

Other Sofl-R ware** packages available: 

6800 6809 

$34.95 BASCOMPARE^ $49.95 

$29.95 ALPHABETIZING PACKAGE $39.95 

$34.95 DISK MAINTENANCE PACKAGE $49.95 



Write call for more information. 
Soft-R ware is marketed exclusively by 

RIPLEY COMPUTERS 

126 N. MAIN ST., SOUDERTON, PA 18964 

(215) 723-1509 

CHECK, MASTER CHARGE, VISA AND COD ACCEPTED 
DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 

MICRO WRITER, MICRO SORTER AND MICRO PROCEDURES ARE 
TRADEMARKS Of AUTOMOTION, INC. 



^ 



EX is a trademark of TECHNICAL SYSTEMS CONSULTANTS 



^ 



'68' Micro Journal 



_41 



SMOKE SIGNAL BROADCASTING 

Presents 

3 Powerful New SS-50/SS-50C Boards 



DCB-4 

Disk Master 

Double Density Controller Board 

and DOS68D Double Density DOS 

$449.00 



The new DCB-4 is a truly state-of-the-art develop- 
ment which allows up to 366K bytes to be stored 
on a single 5V disk and has these outstanding 
features: 

• Up to four 5 1 Vand four 8" drives can be 
handled in the same system with a user de- 
finable logical unit table. (DOS68D will be 
compatible with future hard disk systems). 

• Under software control, the user can select 
the following for any drive: 

A Single sided or double sided operation. 

"6 Single density or double density data. 

<f 5V'or8". 

** Stepping Rate. 

i* 40 track or 35 track density on double 
sided 514" drives. 

& User can select the system boot configu- 
ration. 

• Occupies only 16 bytes of memory space 
(F760-F76F standard). User selectable to any 
16 byte address space. 

• Can read and write a single sector by itself. 
Onboard buffer memory allows full inter- 
rupt capability in interrupt driven systems. 
Once data transfer has been initiated, no 
more processor time is required, 

• Contains extended decoding circuitry for ex* 
tended addressing per SS— 50C bus which 
can be enabled by an option jumper, 

• SSB provides a means for copying software 
written by oider versions of OOS68 to be 
read by OOS680. All new media formatted 
by OOS68D can be read by all older versions 
of OOS68. OOS68 is SSB's 6800 disk opera- 
ting system. 

• Track of side is recorded in single den* 
sity per IBM standard. 

• Phase-locked<loop assures highest data inte- 
grity attainable. 

AM of these features are availabie for immediate 
delivery on one standard 5%" x 9" 50 pin SS-50/ 
SS-50C card for only $449,00. The price includes 
DOS68D version 5.1, MONITOR object code on 
diskette, and a manual with the source listing. 

SMOKE SME 



SCB-69 

Super Computer Board 

6809CPU Board 

$299.00 



The most versatile 6809 CPU Board on 
the market is now available from 
Smoke Signal Broadcasting and has the 
following features: 

• Standard 2 MHz operation, 
(Shipping 1.5 MHz until 68B09 available) 

• 20 bit address generation for up 
to 1 Mbyte of memory. Uses an 
improved address translation RAM 
which is compatible with present 
extended addressing schemes yet 
requires much less overhead when 
used in multi-user systems. 

• All onboard devices can be switch 
selected to occupy any or all ex- 
tended pages. Any on-board device 
may be disabled and its memory 
space is then available for exter- 
nal memory. 

• Standard real-time clock (time— 
of— day, day— of— week, day— of— 
month) with battery back up ca* 
pable of generating programmable 
interrupts. 

• Up to 20K of EPROM can be in- 
stalled on the CPU Board. 

• Standard 1K of RAM on board. 

• Includes improved 6809 Monitor 
(and source listing). 

• Contains an FPLA for decoding 
EPROM address and optional de- 
vices, Switches are used to select 
2K/4K EPROM and Fast/Slow I/O. 

• Contains provision for optional 
9511/9512 floating point pro- 
cessor. 

• NMI line is user selectable to work 
with either SS-50 Of SS-50C 
busses. 

Price for the new SCB— 69 is only 
$299.00 for an assembled, burned*in 
fully tested board. 



M-32-X 

32K 

Memory Board 

$539.00 $439.00 



The first and only 32K 
Static Ram Board on stan- 
dard size (5ft" x 9"} 
SS-50/SS-50C Bus Cir- 
cuit Card is made by 
Smoke Signal. 

• Switch selectable to 
any 4K boundary. 

• Any 4K block may be 
switch enabled or dis- 
abled, 

• Fully compatible with 
SS-50C extended ad- 
dressing (allows mem- 
ory decoding up to 
1 Mbyte). 

• Extended addressing 
capability may be 
switched off for com- 
patibility with SS-50 
systems. 

• Gold Bus Connectors 
for high reliability. 

• Guaranteed 2MHz op* 
eration (tested at 2.2 
MHz). 

• Low power consump- 
tion - 8 volts at 
2.4 amps typical. 



M-32-X 
Board is 
$539.00. 



32K Memory 
priced at 




M-24-X 24 K Memory 
Board expandable to32K, 
is $439,00. 

AndourM-16-X 16K 
board is back to the old 
price of $299.00, 



BBOABCASTIHC 



31336 Via Colinas, Westlake Village, CA 91361, (213) 889-9340 




■ ■riin^-i^i- 



We know you hardcore bit hack- 
ers will recognize the computing 
power derived from combining the 
FORTH language with the 6809, 
today's most advanced 8 bit 
microprocessor 

And we know you'll understand 
this machine's 16 bit math, indirect 
addressing and two stacks are 
ideally suited for implementing 
FORTH. 

But... should anyone need further 
convincing that FORTH provides a 
new dimension in power, speed 
and ease of operation, consider 
the following: 

• It's a modern, modular, structured- 
programming high-level com- 
piled language, 

• It's a combined interpreter 
compiler and operating system. 

• It permits assembler code level 
control of machine, runs near 
speed of assembler code, and 
uses less memory space than 
assembler code. 

• It increases programmer produc- 
tivily and reduces memory hard- 
ware requirements. 



Call or write today. 



KENYON 




1 



• It replaces subroutines by 
individual words and related 
groups of words called 
Vocabularies. These are quickly 
modified and tested by editing 
1024-character text blocks, called 
screens, using built-in editor. 

♦FORTH is a basic system imple- 
mented for SS-50 buss 6809 systems 
with the TSC FLEX 9.0 disk oper- 
ating system. It is available on 5W 
or 8" single density soft-sectored 
floppy disks. $100,00 

tFORTH + consists of tFORTH plus a 
complement of the following 
FORTH source code vocabularies: 
futl assembler, cursor controlled 
screen editor, case statements, 
extended data lypes, general I/O 
drivers $250.00 

firmFORTH is an applications pack- 
age for use with tFORTH. It provides 
for recompilation of the tFORTH 
nucleus, deletion of superfluous 
code and production of fully 
rommable code. §350.00 

Also available for 6800 



MICROSYSTEMS 



10690 Shadow Wood, Suite 105 • Houston, Texas 77043 • (713) 464-0150 



'68' Micro Journal 



_43 



Assembled 


$345 00 


Kit 


17 SO 


Kit 


15,50 


Assembled 


275 00 




40 00 




20 00 




15.00 




25.00 



25.00 



35.00 
10500 
100 00 
50.00 
60.00 
400 00 



Discontinued SWTPC Items In Stock 

(Limited Quantities) 

CT 64 Terminals Kit $295 00 

CT EA Screen Read Board for CT64 
CT P Power Supply 
PR 40 Piinler Kit $225 00 

MP M 4K Memory Kit with 2K RAM 
MP MX 2K RAM Expansion Cor MP M 
Current and Discontinued Barvboards. 
MPSb. MP-LAb 
MP Mb. MP 8Mb, Mp 09b 

Software: 

6800 or 6809 Modem Program with Dbk File Transfer for 

SSB or Flex. Instructions and Source Lbiing 

Disk with source and object (specify 6800. 6809, SS8, Rex) addlOOO 
Editor-Text Processor- Mailing Labels- Mailing Lets 

ALL IN ONE for any terminal. Specify SSBor Flex and Version 35.00 

Source add 35 00 

Microti me 6800 Calendar and Clock Board (see review 
Feb. 1980 '68' Micro Journal) 

Bareboard. connectors, and documentation 

Assembled and tested 
1 lty digit Math Package with Fortran Type Formatting 
Business Random Basic R3 for SSB 

Mark Data Random Bask (Fastest Basic Avail, for SSB DOS) 
Payroll (Process any number of employees, fast) 

ALL IN ONE for only $35.00 

Editor - Text Processor - Mailing Labels - 

Mailing Lists For Any Terminal 

Supports Editing commands such as bottom, change, delete, 
find, insert (single line), input (multiple lines), list, next, overlay (with 
cursor editing, character deletion and insertion), overslnke (for 
selected darker text), print, restart, set, lop, underlie, up. and verify 

Supports Text Processing commands such as block copy, 
block move, centering, margin justification (widen and narrow), paging. 
and tabbing 

Mailing Lists and Labels. Use the same mailing list disk file (with 
protected areas) for both mailing labels and repeat letters. Repeal 
letters are personally addressed to each person or selected persons on 
I lie mailing list. 

Most Powerful File Handling found many editor, Append one file 
to the end of another, or insert (merge) one file into another as 
designated by the line pointer Pnnl specilied lines to your printer or io a 
disk file Edit files larger than the text buffer. Does rm\ produce output 
files when not desired. Delete disk files from the Editor, 

Printer commands. Control characters can be seni to the printer 
for format control either directly from the control terminal or by 
imbedding them in the lest. The Set command contains interface 
initialization and character output routines losupporl the SWTPC MP 
C interface as well as the standard serial a* kJ parallel interfaces User 
also selects the port address (0 thru 7, A or B)lhereby eliminating the 
need for the user to install printer software routines 

Editor allows exiling to either the monitor or DOS and then reenter 
(Warm Start) without desl roying prevtouslyprepared text in the buffer 
The Restart command erases contents v\ the buffer without the user 
having to reload the editor. 

The Editor allows the user to toggle between full duplex (no echo) and 
half duplex (echo) as needed. El responds to commands in both upper 
and lower case and can be used to create assembler source code and 
Basic programs as well as text. 

What do you have to lose? Specify 6800 or 6809, SSB or Flex and 
Version. Source is available lor an additional $35,00 

f7%\ AAA Chicago Computer Center 

VV, V 120 Chestnut lane. Wheeling* IL 60090 

^-^ (312) 459-0450 

Dealer for GIMIX, SSB, SWTPC, and TSC 

Sh OIMIX Atf P»b*» 3 & 56 



'68' MICRO JOURNAL 

•fc The only ALL 6800 Computer Magazine. 
•£» More 6800 material than all the others com- 
bined: 

MAGAZINE COMPARISON 

(2 years) 

Monthly Averages 

6800 Articles 



KB 

7.8 



TOTAL 
DOBB'S PAGES 



BYTE CC 

6.4 2.7 2.2 19.1 ea. mo. 

Average cost for all four each month: $5.88 
(Based on advertised 1-year subscription price) 

68' cosf per month: $1,21 

Thai's Right! Much. Much More 

for About 

1 5 the Cost 1 

1-Year $18.50 2- Year $32.50 3- Year $<48. 50 

OK, PLEASE ENTER MY SUBSCRIPTION 
Bill My: Master Charge Q — VISA n 

Card # Exp. Date 

For □ 1-Year □ 2 Years □ 3 Years 



Enclosed: $ 



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My Computer Is: 



68 MICRO JOURNAL 
3018 Hamlll Road 
HIX50N, TN 37343 



Foreign surface add $9.50 per year. 
Foreign Air Mall add $29.00 per year. 




J©2S ffl Gft* 




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Life Subscription $250.00 
NoterCanadaSMexico ADD $4.50 per year. 
New subscriptions require 6-8 weeks 
processing time* 

'OB* Micro Journal 



DIGITAL RESEARCH COMPUTERS 

(214) 271-3538 



32K S-100 EPROM CARD 
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7 Any or «M EPftOM toe end n? can be 

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16K DYNAMIC RAM PARTIALS 
^\ INTEL 2108 0KX1 RAMS * 
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Huge special purchase of INTEL Dynamic RAM's These 
are 2108-4. 300NS. 8K, Ceramic DIP The 2106 is the 
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These are factory prime. Full Spec See INTEL 1978 Cat. 
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data, Both IMSAJ and EXTENSYS did mfq. S-100 RAM 
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e All ad*e«e and diia ..net Miy oufre,eo ASSEMBLED * TESTED-ADD S3S 
7 K«t include* All paru and «pch»t» 
a phantom* av»s>»^»io pin 17 
ft LOW POWER undar 1 S amp* TVPICal from 
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10 Blink PC Board can ha populated a* any 
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BLANK PC BOARD W/DATA.S33 



SUPPORT 1C"S ft CAPS S19.9S 



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COMPLETE KITI 

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5 Ail PatUi atvi Sor^ota included 

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BLANK PC BOARD $30 COMPLETE SOCKE 

SUPPORT IC'S AND CAPS-$19.95 



SET-$12 



16K EPROM CARDS 100 BUSS 



RCA CMOS COMPUTER CHIP SET 

INCLUDES 

1-CDP1802CD CPU 1-CDPl8blCD VIDEO \C 

2-CDP1822CE 256 x 4 RAM 1-CDP1862CE COLOR GEN 
1-CDP1858CE 4 BIT LATCH 1-CDP1863CE SOUND GEN 
COMPLETE SET $45 limited qtt 




USES 2708'sl 



Thou<aoda ot poraonai and butmoaa ayalpma .i-,,ifirt crxa world 4n» ihts board won 
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TESTED - ADD 130 



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SPECIAL OFFER $14.95 each Add S3 for 60 pnge Dala Manual 



Digital Research Computers 

9 [OP TEJ<AS) r 

P.O, BOX 401565 * GARLANQ, TEXAS 75040 • (214} 271-3538 



TERMS: Add $i ?*> poslage Wo pay balance Ordt*r« under SlS add 75C 
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•TRADEMARK OF DIGITAL RESEARCH 

*68* Micro Journal . 



NOT ASSOCIATED WITH DIGITAL RESEARCH OF CALIFORNIA, THE SUPPLIERS OF CPM SOFTWARE 



45 



JPC PRODUCTS FOR 

6800 



COMPUTERS 




IttUI 



16 CHANNEL A/D BOARD 

• 8 BIT DATA 

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• ± 0,7% ACCURACY 

COMPLETE KIT: AD-16 $69-95 

Terms: Cash, MC or Visa; Shipping €r Handling $3.00 



Order Phone <505) 294.4623 
P.O. Box 5615 
Albuquerque, N.M. 87185 




'JPC products 



STYLOGRAPH 

6809 
WORD PROCESSING SYSTEM 



SmoaMrtf (rcxmerty STYLUS) will give your 6809 
real text processing muscle. It is a fully integrated, 
interactive, text processing system with state-of-the-art 
features such as: 

• CURSOR 1AS£D EDITING 

• DYNAMIC ON-SCRON FORMATDHG 

• INSTANT SCRUM UPDATING 

• POWERFUL PRINTING OPDONS 

• SiMTU, STRAJGHTfORWARD 0OQAM£MTATK>N 

• tlfX AND OS-9 COMPATIBILITY 

• URERAL UPDATE POUCY 

Versions are available for CT-82, Soroc, Hazel tine, Heath, D£C, 
Televideo, BeeNve, MJcroterm, Intertubc, lear Siegler, and Glmlx 24x80 
terminate. Uec, Diablo, Qume, and tty type pr*nte*$ act. supported. 

OS-9 versions are available from Micro ware. Box 4865, Des Moines, 
Iowa S0304. 



Pi ice: manual only \ 15.00 
tty printer $135.00 

Other pc inters $15000 



NY add 

sales 

tax 



STTtOGRAPM' ™ is a trademark of SOfCX SYSTEMS, rex It 6 troOemart or 
Technical systems Consultants. 



SONEX SYSTEMS 

BOX 9 48 WILUAMSVIllt NV 14991 

716— *M-M4e 



6809 — DATA FILE MAINTENANCE 

STOP writing dinky tittle programs for all the 
one-time changes to one item on a data file. 
START bringing up new systems without long 
weeks of programming 

The General Data File Maintenance Program 
can add. delete, insert, and modify data on any 
Me you have* I The powerful security allows you 
to restrict modification of data already entered. 
This software tool will save you days of pro- 
gramming effort with commands that can list, 
print or show your data Some of the many things 
you might use it for are Inventory files, Customer 
Files. Real Estate Listings, plus many more Let 
your imagination run WILD! 
You can format (he items in many ways with this 
6809 Extended BASIC program Some of the 
options available are right or left justify, item 
length, etc, 

Order your diskette today tor only $49.95! Use 
Master Charge, VISA or check Specify diskette 
size 

Tennessee residents add 6V«% sales tax. Cus- 
tomers outside Canada or USA add $5.00 for air 
postage and handling. If you wish lo order by 
phone, give us a call at (615) 396-2161 
Coming soon VER. 2.1 for TSC Multiuser Bask?* 
'Record sizes up lo 252 bytes 



r 



v. 



dp systems 



po box 567 



coliegedale m 37315 



5IM80 



(Available In KC tap* or Pcrcam dl»k) 

MOV - Run 8080 progreaa on your 6dOO or 6$09 
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runs 8080 objeot code DIRECTLY. 

31K-80 la aval labia for aithar 6800 or 6809 
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$A300. Pl**s* apwolfy processor and address 
Mban ordering 

SIM60/6800 06OO varalon tJU.95 

S1X80/6809 6809 varalon IJU.9S 

add $1.00 for poatage a handling 
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• PLaaae specify aedic a 

COM 1 10 SO0H - 3im0 run 6800 object programs 
oa your 6609 WIT80DT CA033 /SanWBLY OR 
HODIPICA.TI0I8M1 




PC Sox IZtf 
Woodhaven. tfev Tor le UkZl 
212-631-9^* 

VISA and Heater Charge accepted 



46 



68 Micro Journal 



COMPUTERWARE 

means 
BUSINESS 

Our 6800 6809 software is doing the job for: 

•« Vntpmiry Ctrdii J Into* •«# CnmP^lrt Mannfofturrr 

ft Cvtywnho Bot*kkrrpU*9 \*ti*\? »o .Sourfcrf* Chuff H Admuntlrotinn 
♦drt I to* ttiMUt ■ Mtmufoi twiwi titm *<t H\**6* tftH*** »*» 
and many many motr at tot* lh«* tmitm 

Computerware sofiware is in the business community 
providing visibility, efficiency, and control to man- 
agers for small businesses and commercial users, 



Applications Include: 

• Puyfott 

• Maihn* SlHttnt 

• (nvr/Uofy C.'n»lr«*f 

• Atfnunf Itri rHilM* 



• An <tuhi\ fvyuNr 

• Mrditat flflVrr 

• trdfrr Affounttntf 
tin J m%iff* 



w* ha** lh* haidwrtrr luitf Y#* (1 you're lotting kit lord] «uppur< fur n«m« 
butinrtt' <lftl4. t>ro« *tt|«g *pf>tkr «lltim, you'tv found li at 

COMPUTERWARE 

1512 Encinitas Blvd.. Box 668 
Encinitas, CA 92024 

(714)436-3512 

Write, cott. or come see us at work! 



HAZELWOOD COMPUTER 
SYSTEMS 

SI Louis Areas lull service computer center teaiunng the ouisiandmg 
GIMIX product kne and ihe 6609 processor 

* GIMIX computer systems contiyu'ed to your needs 

A T07AL SvSTEMS approach 

* laboratory data aqgisilion syslems 

* Interlaces designed and built lor special needs 

* Prolessionat repair service All manes and models 

* Fricndty courteous stall ol compulei professionals 

No salesmen o« clerks 

* A (Jteal place lor meclmg olher 68 Users 

OUR OWN VIDEO GRAPHICS CONTROLLER BOARD . . . 

* 8 MHZ bandwidlh lor high resolution display 

* 2S6X2S6 jitter tree display 12S6X250 on some momiors) 

* True X Y single PIXEL addressability 

* Displays math functions dirediy no software drive* 

* Siopfe command erase erases m t 60 second 

* Self-contained X Y memory doesnot use system address space 

* Plugs into any SS-50 I O bus slot 

* Crystal controlled liming no adjustments 

* 7S ohm composite video output 

* Synchronised write timing no screen splatter 

* No (Oiliafuation ot software dnver required 

* 350 00 assembled an<S tested (video monitor required) 
ORDER #VC-2S6 

Dal* Chamberlains BASIC CROSS REFERENCE 
PROGRAM ... 

* Works with TSC BASIC 8AS files 

* Written «n 6809 assembly language (or high speed 

* 24 9S with instructions and S 1 4 diskette ORDER #BASXRF 

Mai tar Card VISA A marie tin Express Dlnar'a Club Car a 

Michael L. Smith General Manager 

Hazelwood Computer Systems 

7413 N. Lindbergh 

Hazelwood, Missouri 63042 

(314)8373466 

St* GiMix Ad P*gM 3 4 56 



^ 



6800/6809 SOFTWARE 

ACCOUNTS PAYABLE #1300 
Produce financial reports. print checks special control letter Reports 
by vendor number invoice number aged and history file Autosorhng 
of vendor and invoice tiles Plus check and pre check four 
nals S600.00 

ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE #1500 
Produces financial reports, p/mts statements, produces reports by 
customer account number invoice by customer account number and 
invoice by invoice number Print aged report and tr/al balance Keeps 
history file and auto sorting of files $600.00 

GENERAL LEDGER #100 
Program updates to ledger tiles and also generaies reports on 
payroll, sales, accounts payable cash and expense statistics 
Balancesheet and proht Itossreporis tnlormanoncan be generated 
lor yeai end taxes 94 1 and W2 forms $595.00 

INVENTORY II #700 
Produce inventory reports by description or vendor print activity 
reports for one day one montn or one year Quick search by part 
number produce tola' inventory and financial report {For one 
store) $200.00 

MAILING LABLES #100 
Print mailing labels from your complete tile for a pariicuiar city or 
state Use one part mailing labels S SO .00 

MAILING LABELS #400 
Same as * 100 but also prints labels by names Use multiple-part 
labels $125 00 

BASIC— 0935 
For those with applications m SWTP 3 5 BASIC Runs on 6809 and 
6809S 30% faster and can be used with existing 6800 BASIC 
programs No manual commands an$ statements same asSWTPC 
BASIC 3 S Ideal to keep you gomg while changing to new BAStC s 5' 4 
or 8 inch 09 Disk with renumber routine S S9.9S 

Available Irom Computer Stores or order direct from 
Omni-Tronlce Inc. Rt. 130 N. of Half Acre Rd. 
Cr an bury, NJ 08512 
Phone: 609-855-1100 

•■Customized programs tor your business requirements *- 
Charge your ordar to your Visa or Master Charge 



JPC PRODUCTS FOR 

6800 



COMPUTERS 




High P#rf 



CaaMtts Interfi 



• FAST - 4800 Baud Loads 4K m 8 Seconds) 

• ftCUASU . Error Rate Less Than 1 in 10* Bytes 

• CONVENIENT - Plugs Directly into The SWTPC 

• PLUS • A Fully Buttered 8 Bit Output Port Provided 

• LOW COST - 859,95 For Complete Kit 

• OPTIONAL . CFM/3 File Manager 

Manual b Listing $19 95 
tFor Cassette Add) $ 6 95 

ftftMS CASH MC of VIS* Shipping * H«nrjl>ng 11 00 



*JPC products 



Order Phone (SOS) 254 4623 

P.O. Box sets 
Albuquerque, hf.M. 87185 



'68' Micro Journal 



_47 




DS-6B DIGISECTOR A PSB-08 PHOM SYSTEM BOARD ^ B-08 EPROM PROGRAMMER ^ u, ° UNIVERSAL I/O BOARD 

INNOVATIVE PRODUCTS FOR 6800 USERS 



DS-68 DIGISECTOR Is a random access video digit 
izer featuring 256 x 256 picture element scan and 
64 levels of grey scale, with conversion times as low 
as 3 microseconds per pixel. It accepts either inter- 
laced (NTSC) or non-interlaced (industrial) video 
input. Use It for computer portraiture, moving target 
Indicators, precision security systems, fast to slow 
scan conversion. - .with clever software, the Digi- 
sector can read just about anything. Truly a pro- 
fessional tool at a price you can afford. $169.95 




B-08 2708 EPROM PROGRAMMER Is a compact unit 
that fits In the 6800's I/O slot. A safety switch and 
LED indicator provide control over the high pro- 
gramming voltage generated on board. An industrial 
quality Textool socket and extended board height 
allow effortless PROM Insertion and retrieval. Fully 
commented source listings of U2708 is included In 
the Owner's Manual. $99.95 



tit I M£ 



U2708 utility for testing, burning, verifying and 
copying 2708s in EPROM, $29.95 



PSB-08 PROM SYSTEM BOARD features 1K of high 
speed, low-power RAM and space for up to 8 2708 
EPROMs, both DIP-switch addressable to start on 
any 8K boundary In memory. The exclusive I/O 
select feature allows you to move I/O locations up to 
any unused 1K block In the EPROM memory space. 
This permits memory expansion to a full 56K of 
contiguous user RAM. $119.95 



THC 



DM-65 DISK MIXER is an add on board for the 
Smoke Signal Broadcasting BFD-68A Disk Con- 
troller which allows operation of both 8" and 5" 
drives. Controller mode {8" or 5") is selected on a 
drive-by-drive basis, so any mix of 5" and 8" drives is 
allowable. The 2" x 3" PC board mounts incon- 
spicously on the back of the BFD-68A. Its operation 
is completely transparent to software. An oscillo- 
scope is required for the setup procedure. Kit Price: 
$39.95 



M6809 EMULATOR Is a machine language program 
that will emulate all of the functions of the Motorola 
6809 third generation microprocessor. Developed 
for use on any 6800 system, the program allows soft- 
ware development and debugging. The 3K byte pro- 
gram Is complete with a 6809 mini-monitor and 
single-step trace routines. Fully commented source 
listing included Specify Smoke Signal Broad- 
casting or FLEX™ disk, or KCS cassette. $49.95 



ih I UK 




UIO UNIVERSAL I/O BOARD helps you with your 
custom Interfaces. It has space for a 40-pln wire 
wrap socket into which you may plug any of 
Motorola's 40 or 24-pln interface chips. All data and 
controi lines are connected to the appropriate edge 
connector pins. All other bus connections are 
brought out to a 16-pln socket pad. + 5 volt regulator 
and all Molex connectors are provided; regulated 
+ 5 and ground are bused among the locations for 
up to 35 14-pin ICs. $24.95 



mo©[M> 

tfi!/@\gMj&' PO - B0X 1110 ' DEL MAR ' CA 92014 714-942-2400 



46 



'68' Micro Journal 



Model EP-2A-88 

EPROM Programmer 




Fast as JackrabbUs . , . Well almost! 

In Australia, two rabbits can reproduce ov r 13 mllHon offlspiing in 
3 years ai 105 seconds per 2716. the EP-2A-88 can reproduce 
1392,160 EPROMS In 3 years Single push button control, the 
EP.2A.88 checks If EPROMS are erased, programs and verifies 
ll also checks for defe tlve EPROMS. 

Tuw baskr models are available. The EP-2A-88 1 will accept Copy 
<CM) modu les for t e 2758 and 2716 EPROMS The EP-ZA-HH-2 
will accept copy modules for the 2716. 2732 and TMS 2532 
EPROMS Power requirements are 115 VAC 50/60 Hertz at 15 
watts 

Part No Octcrlptom P*" 

D>2A8M1 entOM ptug»nn)fT»CT 94KH» 

EP2AH*2 LPROM Prog™*™ 4«iut> 

CM 5(> Copy Mwfcdv lor 2716 TMS 2St6 fcPKDMS 2AW 

CM 7T> Copy Modokf for 27S8 KWOMS 2S <X> 

CM 20 Copv Module for 2732 EfttDMS 25 < XI 

CM 40 Copy ModuW lor TMS kJfcED'KOMS 2S<K) 

NonS<AndnrtlVoli a i r OptJ { vt{22l^2H^ l«1v) 1SW 

Optimal Technology, Inc. 

Blue Wood 127, EarlysvUle, Virginia 22936 
Phone (804) 973-5482 



DYNAMITE® 

* "THE CODE BUSTER" 
DISASSEMBLES 6800 & 6809 MACHINE CODE 
INTO BEAUTIFUL SOURCES. I 

V \/ V 

• Convert your 6800 programs to 6809! 

• Automatic LABEL generation 

• Allows specifying FCB's. FCC's, FOB'S, etc. 

• Constants input from DISK or CONSOLE 

• Automatically uses system variable NAMES 

• DISK-to-DISK or DISK-to-CONSOLE operation 
Includes 5" or 8 " FLEX 9 diskette with relocatable 

object code. Full operating instructions (youll learn in 
minutes!) 

Order your DYNAMITE ■ today 
Only $60,00 postpaid in U.S. MC & VISA accepted 

6809, FLEX 9, and 24K total RAM required 
order from: 



COMPUTER SYSTEMS CENTER 

13461 Olive Blvd. 

Chesterfield, WO 63017 

(314) 576-5020 

we also stock SWTPC. TSC, JPC products 
hours 12-9 daily, 10-5 Saturday 



% 



Dealer inquiries welcome 
FLEX is a trademark of TSC (Bless their hearts) 



6800/6809 PASCAL 

DYNASOFT PASCAL is a cassette based 
PASCAL subset designed to run on most 6800/ 
6809 systems with 12K or more of memory. 

DYNASOFT PASCAL includes most of 
the control structures of standard PASCAL 
including IF THEM ELSE, CASE OF OTHER* 
WISE, WHILE DO, REPEAT UNTIL. FOR- 
TO/DOWNTO DO, and recursive PROCED* 
URE's and FUNCTION'S. It supports the data 
types INTEGER, CHAR, BOOLEAN, scalar 
(user defined), subrange, pointer and ARRAY. 
It is built around a one pass compiler which 
produces fast, compact p-code and comes 
complete with a line-oriented text editor, p code 
interpreter, and program SAVE and LOAD 
routines. The whole system resides in less than 
8K 

The cassette version with manual is priced at 
$35 plus $3 for postage and handling. Please 
specify 6800 or 6809. 



u 



RJ?S 

systems ltd. 



P O. BOX 51 ( WINDSOR JCT. 
NOVA SCOTIA, CANADA 
B0N2V0 (902)8612202 



DATA BASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 



The Universal Data Research Data Base 
Managpent System provides the user and programmer , 
with a highly structured and efficient method of 
programming and data file handling. 

The System consists of a Menu of programs to 
Create, Build, Sort and Maintain Data Flies, 
Generate Reports and Build User Programs* All 
programs are written Jn TSC Extended Basic. 

Included are Source Programs which contain 
all the common subroutines necessary tor reliable, 
efficient programming for most applications. 

UDRl also has a complete line of Data Base 

compatible end user programs such as: 

-Order Entry/Accounts Rece »vab I e/ Journal 

-Purchase Order/ Accounts Payable/History fl le 

-Inventory Control /BIN of material 

-Payrol I 

-Cash Disbursement/Cash Receipts 

-Customer and Vendor Programs 

-Numerous vertical market programs 

The Data Base Management System allows the 
user to quickly modify and update the standard 
systems programs to fit Custom applications. 



Introductory Price: % 350. 00 



NY residents 
add sales tax 



Universal Data Research, Imo 

2457 Wehrle Dr. 

Buffalo, N.Y. 14221 716-631- 



301 1 



'68' Micro Journal 



_49 



6809 



RECORD MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 



RMS 



DATABASE MANAGEMENT 



•USER DEFINED DATA DICTIONARY AND 

RECORD FORMAT 
•SCREEN ORIENTED. FORM FILL OUT TYPE OF ACCESS 
•OPTIONAL TWO LEVEL RECORD HIERARCHY 
•ALL FILES IN ASCII TEXT FORMAT, BASIC COMPATIBLE 
•DIRECT ACCESS BY KEY FIELD, MULTIPLE INDEX FILES 
•EXTENSIVE DOCUMENTATION, SAMPLE APPLICATION 

INCLUDED 
•VERSATILE. PROFESSIONAL QUALITY REPORT WRITER 
•BUILT-IN SORT/MERGE •EASYTO USE 




RMS is a complete DATABASE MANAGEMENT system for 
the 6809 computer. H runs under Flex, and supports the 
CT-82, or other CRT terminal. RMS is a set of five machine 
language programs that make up the most powerful 
business programming tool available for the 6809. It can be 
used by the relative novice, to implement an incredible varie- 
ty of information storage and retrieval applications, without 
any programming. However, the programmer can use RMS 
as part of the solution to a larger problem, saving many 
hours of unnecessary program development time. RMS can 
be used to handle data input, editing, validation, on-line 
retrieval, sorting and printed reports. Custom data manipula- 
tion can be filled in by the user's BASIC programs. 



WASHINGTON 
COMPUTER SERVICES 

3028 SILVERN LANE 
BELLINGHAM, WA 98225 

A DIVISION OF MICROPI 
1-206-734-8248 



$200 

SINGLE CPU LICENSE 

5 OR 8 INCH DISK 

TERMS: CASH^VISA/MC 




COMPUTERWARE 




HOME 
USER 

SPECIAL 
$99"" 

fur any ojk 1 of tht> following 

Check Ledger System 

reg $249 95 

Correspondence System 

tuq 299% 

Inventory System 

tuq 199 95 

Pre-Paid Orders Only - Good Thru Oct. 15 

Software requires SSB DOS and Computerwore 
Random BASIC — minimum 40K with dual disk 



COMPUTERWARE 




Box 668 

Enclnttcm. CA 92024 



RE «« 

(714)436-3512 I 



6800 PRODUCTS AT A-V1DD 

Software Dynamic* Compiler 

The SD Compiler Basic to the most well developed basic for the 
6800 Some of the more notable features include Formatted 
Print Statements, If Then Eise & While Do, variable names up to 
15 characters and high speed execution Both random and 
sequential device I/O can be done, in either binary or ASCII 
mode for data flow control to the byle Now available for Flex II. 
Fkx I, and SSB Flex It Package includes Basic Compiler. Mai 
Assembler (with extensive manual* for each}, run time package 
and 4 misc utilities. Call m write for detailed catalog Dealer 
inquiries invited 

P*e S330 00 

Add «<l Bonus. For every retail compiler package purchased, 
you will receive one SPL M 6800 pure code compiler, a S50 0() 
value 



Also available. Software Dynamics Editor 
Price 



S1#0«0 



Mlcrotime 6800 

Plugs into any I/O port of the SWTPC 6800 Supplies user with 
rime in hours, minutes, seconds. AM or PM. month, date and 
year fi e 7/1/80 12 00 00 PM PSTJ Provisions for optional 
battery or external power supply Supplied with software to sei 
rime, Interrogate clock, and print lime 
Assembled & Tested S 95 00 

Bare Board W DOCS S 35 00 

Immediate delivery Phone and mail orders accepted We ship 
worldwide (F OB Long Beach} 



A-VIDD 



2210BetlflowerBlvd 
Long Beach, CA 90815 

{213)598-0444 
(714)821.0870 

Three blocks South of the San Diego Freeway in rhe Los Aitos 

Center 



electronics co. 



Hour*'. 



Mon • Thurs 

Friday 

Saturday 



m> 



8 30 AM 5 30 PM 
8 30 AM 9 00 PM 
t0:00 AM-S 30 PM 



50 



'68' Micro Journal 




Ill 



Brings it all Together! 




Hardware Features 

'2 MHz 68900 MPU 

• Double Floppy Dtek Drive - 3B8 K byte* 
formatted 

• 32K, 48 K. or 64K byte dynamic RAM 

• Intelligent Video Terminal 

• Commercial typewriter keyboard with 
function keys and numberlc pads 

• 2 RS-232C serial ports 



Software 
Features 

* UCSO Pascal* System Software Peerage 

* 6800 Mum-tasking System (MTS6800) 

* Business BASIC Compiler 

* WORDMATE* Word Processor 

* Various Application Packages 

" UCSD I'dw:*! lk«rrsdwrwiliatTh« 



Packaging 

* Attractive, Compact, desk- 
top enclosure 

* Light weight, highly portable 

* Provision for 3 170 
Expansion modules 

* Highly reliable, ease of 
maintenance 



Price: * Quantity 1 (one) end user price $2,995 * Attractive OEM/Dealer Discounts Available 




♦ ♦ ♦ 



WAVE MATE INC. 

18005 AdrtaMaru Lane 
Canon, California 90746 
21 3532-4532 
Telex 194369 



EUROPEAN HEADQUARTERS 
WAVE MATE INTERNATIONAL 

159Chde Vie urge I 
1050 BruxeJles, Belgium 
<02i 649 1070 Telex 24050 



68 Micro Journal 



51 



6809! 

INTRODUCING THE NEW 

STATE-OF-THE-ART 

IN MICROCOMPUTER 

SOFTWARE FROM MICROWARE 

OS9-1 SINGLE USER 

OS9-1 WITH TAPE FILE MANAGER 

on 2716s $ 95.00 
on 2708s $ 95.00 

Manual & Source only $ 85.00 

OS9-1 WITH DISK FILE MANAGER 

on 2716s $150.00 

on 2708s $150.00 

Manual & Source only $150.00 

DEBUGGER PACKAGE 

(aprox 1K) 



Manual & Source 



on 2716s 
on 2708 s 
on tape 
on disk 
only 



$ 50.00 

$ 50.00 

$ 35.00 

$ 35.00 

$ 50.00 




INTERACTIVE EDITOR/ASSEMBLER 

on 2716s $180.00 

on 2708s $180.00 

on tape $150.00 

on disk $150.00 

Manual & Source only $150.00 

Above items available after aprox. June i, 

1980. 



See CIMIX ad 
Pages 3 6 56 



COMING SOON!!! 

BASIC09 
OS9-2 MULTIUSER 

When ordering, you must specify; type of 
CPU card, type of disk controller, size of 
media and starting address for your I/O 
ports. 

From the company that puts it all together. 
GIMIX, SMOKE, SWTPC. MICROWARE. 
ANADEX, SPINWRITER, DIGITUS, Hl- 
PLOT MICROWORKS. . . . 

H H H ENTERPRISES 

BOX 493, Laurel, MO. 

ZIP 20810 
PHONE 301-953-1155 



BLITZ 



SCREEN EDITOR FOR THE CT-82 

• IDEAL FOR WORD PROCESSING OR PROGRAMMING 

• THERE IS NO FASTER / EASIER WAY TO EDIT TEXT 

• IT ALL HAPPENS IMMEDIATELY ON THE SCREEN SO 
YOU SEE EXACTLY WHAT YOU ARE DOING: INSERT 
CHARACTER. DELETE CHARACTER. INSERT LINE. 
DELETE LINE. SCROLL UP, SCROLL DOWN 

• RUNS ON 6800 OR 6809 UNDER TSC's FLEX 

• AVAILABLE ON 5 DR 8 INCH DISKETTE 

• BESTOF ALL - YOU CAN BUY THE ENTIRE 
ASSEMBLY LANGUAGESOURCECODE, SOYOU 
CAN ADD YOUR OWN CUSTOM FEATURES 

• FRDMTHE COMPANYTHAT BROUGHT YOUTHE 
MICROP.4 USER PILOT/BASIC/EDITOR PACKAGE 

$50- OBJECT ONLY 

$100 - SOURCE AND OBJECT 



206-734-8248 



IICROPi 

SN Nn^Nir 



* CT-64 




CT-1024 



* DMA VIDEO ADAPTER 
FOR YOUR TERMINAL 

• DMA (ability to update anyplace on the screen 
directly) 

• HIGH SPEED DISPLAY Oast as any video board) 

• KEYBOARD CONTROL (of baud rate and paging 
/scrolling) 

- DOCUMENTATION (includes source listing that 
replaces Outee) 

J.B.I. adapter with memory $162.95, J.B.I, adapter 
without memory $149.95. Source Code on Disk 
$5.00 — Tape $3.50 

Provide your system configuration and software. 
Terms: cash* MC. Visa or COD, plus $3.50 
shipping and handling. 

Johnson Micro Computer 

2607 E. Charleston 

Las Vegas, Nev. 89104 

1-702-384-3354 



$2 



68 Micro Journal 



HEMENWAY ASSOCIATES 
SOFTWARE SOURCE BOOKS™ 

Your 6600 is up and running with HEMENWAY ASSOCIATES' complete software system. Software 
Source Books provide a powerful yet extensible programming package for business, scientific, or 
personal uaea. 

Combining detailed descriptions with COMPLETE SOURCE CODE LISTINGS, these books explain 
the internal operations and algorithms used in HEMENWAY ASSOCIATES' popular systems soft- 
ware. 

Imagine getting a complete 6800 software library, and at these suprisingly low prices. 

Remember, these are not just books; they are Software Source Books™ complete software re- 
sources! Order them today; VISA and MASTERCHARGE accepted. 



CP/66 OPERATING SYSTEM 

The moat powerful operating system available 
for the 6600 family of microprocessors, this disk- 
baaed system features great flexibility. The user 
can add commands for special purposes. A 
single transient Peripheral Interchange Program 
(PIP) transfers data between devices. The sys- 
tem ia relocatable anywhere in memoiy and fits 
in leas than 6K. Other features include device- 
independent I/O and dynamic file allocation. 

U.S. $34.95 
Int. $52.45 

XA6809 
MACRO LINKING CROSS-ASSEMBLER 

This new two-pass program generates reloca- 
table and linkable code (requires LINK66). Resi- 
dent on any 6600 system. XA6609 lets you pro- 
duce code for a 6609 right now. This assembler 
has full macro facilities and features a COMMON 
section for the production of ROMable code. Con- 
ditional Assembly and fast execution. 

U.S. $24.95 
Int. $31.50 

LINK66 LINKING LOADER 

This ia a one-paaa linking loader which allows 
separately translated relocatable object mod- 
ulea to be loaded and linked together to form a 
aingle executable load module, and to relocate 
modules in memory. It produces a load map and 
a load module in Motorola MIKBUG loader for- 
mat. This book provides everything necessary 
for learning about this system and the nature of 
linking loader design in general. 

U.S. $7.95 
Int. $11.95 



RA6800ML RELOCATABLE 
MACRO ASSEMBLER 

This two-paaa assembler produces a program 
listing, a sorted symbol table listing, and reloca- 
table object code. The object code ia loaded and 
linked with other assembled modules using 
LINK68. This book fully describes the 6600 as- 
sembly language and all major routines used, 
and includes flow charts, details on interfacing 
the assembler. Cross-referenced, showing all 
calling and called-by routines, pointers, flags 
and temporary variables. 

U.S. $24.95 
Int. $37.45 

Structured BASIC language 
STRUBAL + ™COMPILER 

The compiler features variable precision from 4 
to 14 digits tor business or scientific uses and 
Structured Programming forma. It produces Re- 
locatable and linkable code. You can create 
data structures with mixed data types, COM- 
MON and DUMMY sections. STRUBAL + ™ in- 
eludes a complete scientific package. It allows 
tor string-handling and ia extensible. 

U.S. $49.95 
Int. $74.95 



* — J^tr^SL— , HEMENWAY ASSOC, INC. 

uH.imMi^ e*»o« 101 TREMOtfT STRSET 

«»«. uio mom «mwj> BOSTON, MA 02 1 06 

«d»»f' Mfii » u*ic*o AM»«tf (617)426-1931 

.^__ c oe*a» u«u uw mn q cOaocr 
•« mam* m**ca too i n uocm roirtot i xmixm »t<u aoc* *on **ai aw 



h*Ht*+m, P-^Cd> 







'66* Micro Journal 



^63 



ED SMITHS SOFTWARE WORKS 

NEW 
6809 SOFTWARE TOOLS 

CROSSMAC A 6600 TO 6609 CROSS ASSEMBLER version 
of RRMAC which runs on your 6800 to produce relocatable 
6809 object code from existing (6800> or new (6809) source 
files. Handles deleted 6800 instructions via macros Supplied 
with 6809 machine language linking loader 

M66CX $200.00 

RRMAC RELOCATABLE RECURSIVE MACROASSEM- 
BLER and LINKING LOADER for 6809. The one macro 
assembler with real macro capabilities. Retains all features of 
6800 version. 

M69RR $150,00 

M6809 RELOCATABLE DISASSEMBLER AND SEG- 
MENTED SOURCE TEXT GENERATOR. An Invaluable tool for 
modifying large object programs for reassembly on your 
syslem. 

M69RS $50.00 

M6809 RELOCATING ASSEMBLER and LINKING LOADER 

is a version of RRMAC wllhoul Us macro capabilities. Retains 
all of RRMACfe programmer convenience features. 

M69AS $75.00 

All programs come complete with Programmer's Guide and 
extensively commented assembly listing Available on cas- 
sette or mini-floppy. Specify cassette. SSBdisk, mini-Rex disk 
or FLEX 2,0 disk. 






Great Plains Computer Company, Inc. 



P.O, Box 916, Idaho Falls. Idaho 83401 



208—529-3210 



COMPUTER SYSTEMS CONSULTANTS INC. 
HARDWARE 

RS-232/TTL TO SELECTRIC INTERFACE BOARD $3500 

SS-50 WIRE-WRAP BOARD 

(52-16 PIN POSITIONS) $25.00 

SS-30 UNIVERSAL I/O WIRE-WRAP BOARD 

(32-16 PIN POSITIONS! $1250 

SS-30 SERIAL INTERFACE BOARD $10.00 

SS-50 FRONT PANEL DISPLAY BOARD $1500 

(16 LEO'S DISPLAY FIRST DIGIT OF ADDRESS) 
RS-232 25 WIRE CABLE W/CONNECTORS 

6 FT. LONG $20.00 

34 WIRE 2 DRIVE W/CONNECTORS 

6 FT, DISK CABLE $30.00 

50 WIRE 2 DRIVE W/CONNECTORS 

6 FT. DISK CABLE $39.00 

CABINET FOR DUAL 5" MINIFLOPPIES 
AND POWER SUPPLY $40.00 

SOFTWARE 

6800/6801/6809 PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM $50.00 
(LJMITEO TIME ONLY) 

RUNS UNDER AND PROCESSES ANY 680X INSTRUCTION 
SET. INCLUDES FOLLOWING SOURCE PROGRAMS 
DISASSEMBLER {DISK-TO-DISK, WITH LABELS, FCB'S. 

FCC S, FDB § S, ETCJ, 
CROSS»REFERENCE (680X ASSEMBLER SOURCE. 

ALPHABETIZED REFERENCE LIST). 
NAME CHANGER fANY TEXT FILE. DISK-TO-DISK), 
SUPER-ZAP (BINARY FILE EDITOR, DISK-TO DISK, FULL 
SCREEN EDIT AND INSTRUCTION DISPLAY) 
FULL-SCREEN DISPLAY PACKAGE FOR DUMB TERMINALS 
AND VIDEO DISPLAYS $25.00 

(SET OF TSC EXTENDED BASIC SUBROUTINES TO ALLOW 
FUU-SCREEN DISPLAY/EDIT ON DUMB TERMINALS AND 
VIDEO DISPLAYS) 

DISK SORT/MERGE GENERATOR PROGRAM $2500 

(INTERACTIVELY GENERATES TSC EXTENDED BASIC 

PROGRAM OR SUBROUTINES FOR DISK SORT/MERGE) 

TSC PRECOMPILER BASIC RESEOUENCER PROGRAM $15.00 

(RESEQUENCES ANY TYPE TSC BASIC PROGRAM, WITH 

PARTIAL RESEQUENCE AND BLANK-SEQUENCE CAPABILITIES) 

NO CREDIT CARDS ACCEPTED - COD CHARGES EXTRA 

ADD 5% FOR POSTAGE/HANDLING (15% FOREIGN) 

1454 LATTA LANE, N.W— C0NYER8, GEORGIA, 30207 
TELEPHONE 404-493-1717 or 483-4570 



45654 



F&D Associates 7 

1210 Todd Road bus | 

New Plymouth, Ohio p.~„ c .i. ? 

614-3*2-5721 6/*30 RM, C.S.T.T 

. , _ ^ , For Toctl. Info. 5 

Sand for Ire* Catalog ~ 

Visa — Master Charge ~ C.O.D. & 

2 WANT TO BUILD A DISK BASED SYSTEM? 

V We have the boards you need to custom assemble a 
5 6800 or 6809 system to run FLEX 2.0' or FLEX 9* with 
Jt 5 and/or 8 inch drives. Prices are for bare board and 
SL documentation. Available assembled on special order. 

' THE MOTHER BOARD 
~ BMB-1 Has 12 main slots, 8 l/Oslots,non wasteful DIP 
y switch addressing to any 32 or 64 byte boundary, 4 or 8 
y addresses per slot. 1/8 " thick epoxy glass. Shearable 
~ to other lengths. $45.00. 

THE CPU* 

SBM- 1 — Based on the many-featured 6801 . Up to 8K 
of EPROM/RAM, Serial I/O, baud rate generator, 
7 Parallel port, hardware timer, etc. $37.50 

V CPU-2 - Based on 6802, Has on-board EPROM 
space, serial I/O, 2 parallel ports, 256 bytes of RAM. 
On-board devices located from SF400-F7FF so as not 
to waste space. We have a diskette that patches FLEX 
2.0* to move I/O and disk controller to SE000 block 

living 56K of undisturbed memory space, $35.00 
lD-209 — A plug-in adapter board used to convert 
CPU-2 to 6809 operation. $15.00 

THE MONITORS 

FADBUG-IIMS — A 2K monitorfor SBM- 1 . Compatible 
with MIKBUG" and SWTBUG"* plus supports PMB-1 
video controller for operation without a terminal if 
desired. Preprogrammed 2716 available. Instruction 
manual and listing $10.00 

FADMON-E — A 2K monitor for CPU-2. Commands 
same as above* similar to SWTBUG*'\ Supports 
PMB-1. I/O and disk controller expected at SE000 
block. Preprogrammed 2716 available. Instruction 
manual and listing $10.00 

FADBUG-9/VIDEO-9 — Monitor and video handler for 
CPU-2 when converted to 6809. 1K each. Available 
together in a 2716, Manuals and listings, both 
for $15.00 

THE I/O BOARDS 

PMB-1 — A memory mapped video controller based 
on the 6845. 64 x 16, 80 x 24 and other formats 
possible. Up to 4K screen memory. Graphics capabil- 
ity. $37.50 
FD-S1 — A 30 pin serial I/O card with a parallel input 
for a keyboard, Helps avoid software hassles when 
operating without an external terminal. Has RS232 
line, current loop line, reader control line, buffered RTS 
and CTS, etc. An voltages regulated. $29.00 
THE DISK CONTROLLER 

MDI-1 —A 30 pin card that uses either the 1771 or 
1 791 FDC chip. Using the 1 77 1 , single density 5 and/or 
8 inch drives are supported. Up to 4 drives in any mix. 
1791 makes single and double density operation 
possible with 5 " drives, single density only with 8 ". 
Meal for Shugart, Wangco, Siemens, MPI, and other 
drives. $35.00 

Add $2.50 a/h to each order. 
Trademarks of *TSC, "Motorola, •"SWTPC 

7U!a!a!a!a!a!a!a!a!a!a!a!a!a!a!a!a!a!a!a!a!a!a!a!a 



'68' Micro Journal 



ATTENTION! 



9* 



HOBBYISTS, EXECUTIVES, INVENTORS, ENGINEERS, 
PROGRAMMERS, SMALL BUSINESSMEN 

LOOK AT WHAT IS AVAILABLE FROM STOCK 

FROM THOMAS INSTRUMENTATION! 

OUR NINTH YEAR IN BUSINESS 

FEATURING 
NEW 16K (4-4K) MEMORY 

A "Cents'able way to add memory to your system 
<P "Four 4K blocks individually addressable 0-F <^ 



#j» #j* «j* #y? «j* 



*j* *^* *^* *jiz *f» 



*0 



Additional memory at less than $10.00 per 1K 
*Add memory 1K at a time, using low cost 21 14s 
*The Memory Card is available three ways 

• Asm. & tested, socketed with all 16K $295.00 

• Asm, & tested, socketed for 16K, with 1K $129.00 

• Bare card and Documentation $ 44.00 



SPECIAL: $242.00VALUEFORONLY$t75,00'* 

> A set of our bare cards to build a small system 

> Consists of 8-Slot Backplane Motherboard. 

> Super CPU. Video Ram, 16K Memory. 10 Port 

> Parallel I/O. Wire Wrap Prototype Card, and 

> Documentation for each of the above 

> OUR SS-50 LINE-UP * ■ 

Alt Thomas Instrumentation's assembled cards are 
burned in at 150*F and fully tested 

> All cards come with full documentation including 
software source listings where appropriate 

> Bare card price does not include edge connectors 

• Super CPU asm. with monitor source 

but without 2K-2708S EPROM monitor $195.00 

• Monitor in two 2708s EPROMS $ 29.00 

• CPU bare card, doc, & source $ 49-00 

• Video ram asm. 7X9 char. 64X16 line $169.00 

• Video ram bare card, doc, & source $ 45.00 

• Parallel I/O asm. 100 I/O lines 

includes 5 PIA's for 10 ports $110.00 

• Parallel I/O bare card & doc. $ 35.00 

• Wire-Wrap/Prototype bare card $ 29.00 



NEW PRODUCT LINES " * 

NEW RCA sealed Keyboards 

• Model 611 S 85.00 

• Model 601 S 65,00 

• CPU Cable S 10.00 
Leedex Monitor $139.00 

NEW BACKPLANES/MOTHERBOARDS * * 

• The following cards are extra thick (3/32) 

• 16 Position SS-50 $80.00 

• 12 Position SS-50 $60.00 

• 8 Position SS-50 $40.00 

• 4 Position SS-50 $20.00 

• 8 Position SS-30 $39.00 

► SS-50 to SS-30 Transition card will be 
available next month 

► Connectors for the above cards are separate, 
SS-50 take 5 for each pos. , SS-30 take 3 each 
backplanes take males, main cards take 
females 

► Males Tin $0.40ea. Gold $1.60ea. 

► Females Tin $0.50ea. Gold $1.60ea. 



WE 

DESIGN 

HARDWARE 



DEALERS FOR SWTPC, GIMIX, AND TSC 

THOMAS INSTRUMENTATION SPECIALIZES IN HELPING YOU 

DEVELOP LOW COST SYSTEMS TO MEET YOUR INDIVIDUAL 

COMPUTING NEEDS . . . LET US AUTOMATE YOUR LABORATORY 

WE HAVE SPECIAL SYSTEMS AND PRICES FOR SCHOOLS 



WE 

WRITE 

SOFTWARE 



VISA 



THOMAS INSTRUMENTATION 

168 EIGHTH STREET AVALON, N.J. 08202 (609) 967-4280 

N.J. RES. INCLUDE 5% SALES TAX 
CONTINENTAL U.S.A. INCLUDE $2.00 SHIPPING, CANADA $5.00, FOREIGN $10.00 




68 ' Micro Journal 



55 






Gimx 

PROUDLY 
PRESENTS!!! 







GJMIX 6809 1 FUNCTION LAYOUT 



SS50C 6809 CPU 

The 6809 CPU card will be available in a standard version and our 6809 PLUS version that is fully socketed to 
allow adding options at anytime. 

+ A 6840 timer package that provides 3 independent 16 bit counters is included on all 6809 PLUS cards. 

+ A 951 1 or 9512 Arithmetic Processors option with its own independent crystal that allows you to use 2. 3, 
or 4 MHz parts in any combination with the 6809 running at 1, 1.5, or 2 MHZ. 

+ 1K of scratchpad RAM 

+ A Time of Day Clock option with battery back-up. With this option you can also substitute IK of CMOS 
RAM that will also be battery backed up. 

+ User selectable processor speeds without having to change the crystal. 

32K of PROM, ROM or RAM. 8oth versions have 4 sockets that can each hold from 1K to 8K parts. Single or multi- 
ple voltage parts can be used on the PLUS version. The standard version only allows the use of single voltage 
parts. 

All on board devices and options can use extended addressing so that they will only respond to that page to 
which they are set. 

The card is double buffered and allows versatility in the use of software and memory address control disciplines. 

Please note that this card does not have an on board baud rate generator and must be used in systems where 
baud rates (if needed) are provided elsewhere in the system. 



Eimix 



1337 WEST 37th PLACE • CHICAGO, I L 60609 • (312)927-5510 • TWX 910-221-4055 



QlMIX k andOHOSr are /eg«stewJ irademarKs ol GlMiX In 



1980GlMlXtnc. 



56 



-68' Micro Journal 



SS-50 MEETS 
UCSD PASCAL 



FOR 6809 SYSTEMS 

IMMEDIATE DELIVERY FOR SWTPC, G1MIX USERS, 8" OR S*" DISKETTES 
SMOKE SIGNAL BROADCASTING USERS INQUIRE 



FREE! UCSD PASCAL USERS MANUAL PLUS 
SWTPC IMPLEMENTATION NOTES WITH CSM 



CSM 



CSl-2 



M i nmpiliT. Vnvn 
Editor, YALOF. (Lini? editor lor 
hard -copy terminal*), Filer, 
Linker. Library, Sri up. Hinder. 
Interpreter, BR>> 1250.00 

BASIC Compile L-2 Itfilot l\atth 
m mhU-r. UilmLiUn $ UHL00 





CS1 3 MARCO Assemblers for 6809 and 
6800 S100.00 

ALL THREE DISKS AND MANUAL 
(SYSTEM} $419.00 

Now Available 1 1'ascal usor-group com- 
patible (IBM 3740) Disk Driver Routines 

$20 

(SWTPC equipment cump.jtjble) 



UCSD PASCAL" 
MEETS BUSINESS 

NEW MICRO-WINCHESTER DISK DRIVE FOR MICROCOMPUTERS 



] 



CSI announces a new option for their UDS 470 microcom- 
puter: the micro-winchester hard disk drive. Available 4Q 
1980 the micro-winchester drive will replace one of the two 
mini-floppy drives now standard with the UDS 470, thereby 
bringing a dramatic increase in on-line storage capacity. 

This increased storage — 6.38 Megabytes — makes the UDS 470 viable for business 
applications requiring more on-line storage than previously available with floppy 
disk drives. 

The micro-winchester drive will fit directly into the existing UDS 470 cabinet. Thus 
customers will realize the benefit of increased storage capacity without the disadvan- 
tage of finding space for a larger cabinet or an additional disk drive enclosure. 

CALL TOLL-FREE (800) 255-441 1 

Continental U.S.A. only. (Kansas residents call (913) 371-6136) 



^s. 



MESM 



1317 Central, Kansas City, KS 66102 |913) 371-6136 ♦ 5200 West 73rd St., Minneapolis, MN 55435 (612J 8310214 software 



Drawer EE. Williamsburg, VA 23185 (804) 564-9350 
'UCSD Pascal" is a registered trademark of The Regents of the University of California. 



only 






68 Micro Journal 
3018Hamlll Rd 
HtxSOft TN 37343 



CO 



- 

O V. . 2*UiO 



Second Class Postage Paid 
At Chattanooga. TN 
ISSN 0154-5025 



6 J9 PROCESSING POWER! 



only $199.95 




The Percom SBC/9™: A "10" By Any Measure. 



Available with either the new, powerful 6809 uP or an optional 6800-software-compatible 
6802, here are 10 beautiful reasons why the Percom SBC/9" is not just another runner-up 
MPU/Single-Board-Computer card. 



O SS-50 bus direct, plug-in-compatible upgrade 
MPU. Requires no modification of the system 
bus, I/O or memory, 

€> Full-capability stand-alone single-board compu- 
ter. Accommodates a 6809 microprocessor or op- 
tional 6802 microprocessor without modifica- 
tion. 

€> On-card 1 K ROM monitor "auto-llnks" to optional 
second 1 K PROM — If installed. Second PROM 
may be used to easily extend or modify the prim- 
ary monitor command set. 

O Eight-bit parallel port is multi-addressextension of 
system bus. Accommodates an exceptional vari- 
ety of peripheral devices ranging from game pad- 
dles and keyboards to memory management 
modules. Connector is optional. 




O 



Serial port includes a full-range selectable bit rate 
generator. Optional subminiature 'D' connector 
provides RS-232 compatibility. 

Extendable addressing via SS-50 bus baud lines 
to 1 Mbyte. Extendable addressing to 16 Mbytes 
or more through the parallel "super port." 



Includes 1 Kbyte of static RAM. 

All on-card I/O is fully decoded so that adjacent 
memory space may be used. 

ROM circuit may be jumper-wired for single- or 
triple-voltage 271 6 EPROM. 

On-card power regulators simplify power supply 
design by minimizing regulation demands. 



Plug the SBC/9™ into your SS-50 
system bus, and just that easily 
you've upgraded to the new super- 
fast super-powerful 6809 MPU with 
such programming amenities as 10 
addressing modes. 16-bit instruc- 
tions, autonncrement/auto-decre- 
ment and position-independent 
code. Plus, you now have extended 
addressing capability, and opera- 
tion under control of PSYMON™, 
the most powerful and flexiblle 1K 
ROM 6809 operating system yet 
written 



Percom SYstem MONitor 
PSYMON™ provides the usual 
ROM monitor functions in 1 Kbyte It 
is easily extended and customized 
because Its unique "look-ahead" 
program structure first searches an 
alternate command table. The ta- 
ble, if present, may be used to rede- 
fine or extend PSYMON's™ com- 
mand set, 

And with PSYMON™, I/O Iseasily 
directed to any peripheral device — 
even a disk system — through a 
Device Control Block table located 



in memory This allows you to leave 
the details of I/O software to the 
separate I/O device drivers 
. A PSYMON™ ROM is included 
free with the purchase of an 
SBC/9™ The Users Manual in- 
cludes a source listing, 

The 1 Kbyte ROM monitor for the 
SBC/9™ 6802 option includes a 
primary set of typical 6800- 
compatible monitor commands, As 
for PSYMON™, the commands are 
easily extended or modified 



Products are available at Rercofn dealers nationwide Cell toll-free, 
1.400-927-1992, for the eidreee eP your neereet doeler* or to 
errfer direct. Pt**» and *p*rffet>ont •i**** to tf»^» w«ttou» noto 



PtqCOM CAM COMPANV INC 

Jn H *«ev G4ALANO TLIMU; J&£*4? 



<?i<m?to:ji2i 



PEFCOM